fixation

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fixation

 [fik-sa´shun]
1. the act or operation of holding, suturing, or fastening in a fixed position.
2. the condition of being held in a fixed position.
3. in psychiatry, a term with two related but distinct meanings: (a) arrest of development at a particular stage (if this is temporary it is a normal reaction to difficulties, but if continued it is a cause of emotional problems); and (b) a close and suffocating attachment to some person, especially a childhood figure such as a parent.
4. in microscopy, the treatment of material so that its structure can be examined in greater detail with minimal alteration of the normal state, and also to provide information concerning the chemical properties (as of cell constituents) by interpretation of fixation reactions.
5. in chemistry, the process whereby a substance is removed from the gaseous or solution phase and localized, as in carbon dioxide or nitrogen fixation.
6. in ophthalmology, direction of the gaze so that the visual image of the object falls on the fovea centralis.
7. in film processing, the chemical removal of all unexposed and undeveloped silver compounds of the film emulsion, as on x-ray films.
complement fixation see complement fixation.
intermaxillary fixation (IMF) a technique used to stabilize a fractured jaw; the teeth are wired or banded together. Extreme caution must be exercised to insure that oral secretions and vomitus are not aspirated as the patient is unable to expectorate any fluids. Antiemetics are often administered to prevent vomiting. Wire cutters should be kept with the patient at all times.
Teeth wired in intermaxillary fixation. From Ignatavicius et al., 1995.

fix·a·tion

(fik-sā'shŭn),
1. The condition of being firmly attached or set.
2. In histology, the rapid killing of tissue elements and their preservation and hardening to retain as nearly as possible the same relationship they had in the living body. Synonym(s): fixing
3. In chemistry, the conversion of a gas into solid or liquid form by chemical reactions, with or without the help of living tissue.
4. In psychoanalysis, the quality of being firmly attached to a particular person, object, or period in one's development.
5. In physiologic optics, the coordinated positioning and accommodation of both eyes that result in bringing or maintaining a sharp image of a stationary or moving object on the fovea of each eye.
[L. figo, pp. fixus, to fix, fasten]

fixation

/fix·a·tion/ (fik-sa´shun)
1. the process of holding, suturing, or fastening in a fixed position.
2. the condition of being held in a fixed position.
3. in psychiatry: (a) arrest of development at a particular stage, or (b) a close suffocating attachment to another person, especially a childhood figure, such as a parent.
4. the use of a fixative to preserve histological or cytological specimens.
5. in chemistry, the process whereby a substance is removed from the gaseous or solution phase and localized.
6. in ophthalmology, direction of the gaze so that the visual image of the object falls on the fovea centralis.
7. in film processing, removal of all undeveloped salts of the film emulsion, leaving only the developed silver to form a permanent image.

complement fixation , fixation of complement addition of another serum containing an antibody and the corresponding antigen to a hemolytic serum, making the complement incapable of producing hemolysis.

fixation

(fĭk-sā′shən)
n.
1. The act or process of fixing or fixating: the fixation of nitrogen by bacteria.
2. An obsessive preoccupation.
3. Psychology A strong attachment to a person or thing, manifested in an immature or pathological way.

fixation

[fiksā′shən]
Etymology: L, figere, to fasten, atio, process
(in psychoanalysis) an arrest at a particular stage of psychosexual development, such as anal fixation. fixate, v., fixated, adj.

fixation

Physical examination The immobility of a relatively well-circumscribed mass in soft tissue, as is typical of breast CA. See Postural fixation Psychiatry The arrest of psychosocial development; fixation may be considered pathologic, if intense.

fix·a·tion

(fik-sā'shŭn)
1. The condition of being firmly attached or set.
2. histology The rapid killing of tissue elements and their preservation and hardening to retain as nearly as possible the same relations they had in the living body.
Synonym(s): fixing.
3. chemistry The conversion of a gas into solid or liquid form by chemical reactions, with or without the help of living tissue.
4. psychoanalysis The quality of being firmly attached to a particular person or object or period in one's development.
5. physiologic optics The coordinated positioning and accommodation of both eyes that results in bringing or maintaining a sharp image of a stationary or moving object on the fovea of each eye.
[L. figo, pp. fixus, to fix, fasten]

fixation

1. Any method of holding something in a fixed position, especially holding the broken fragments of a bone in proper alignment so that they will heal together in the correct positional relationship.
2. The accurate alignment of one or both eyes on a small object.
3. A psychoanalytic term meaning an excessively close attachment to an object or person, of a kind appropriate to an earlier, immature, stage of development. See also EXTERNAL FIXATOR.

fixation

a genetical situation where all members of a population are HOMOZYGOUS for one particular ALLELE of a gene, so that no alternative alleles of that LOCUS exist in the population. fixation often occurs in small populations. See also EXTINCTION (2).

fixation

stabilization of bone following surgery or fracture
  • external fixation use of rigid casts or insertion of transdermal pins from an external metal framework or cage (see Ilizarov frame) to maintain bone fragments in correct alignment following surgical or traumatic fracture

  • internal fixation use of bone remodelling and positioning techniques, or insertion of pins, screws, or screws and plates to maintain bone fragments in correct alignment, following surgical or traumatic fracture

fixation

The act of directing the eye to a given object so that its image is formed on the foveola.
anomalous fixation See eccentric fixation.
fixation axis See fixation axis.
bifoveal fixation See bifixation.
binocular fixation Fixation on an object with both eyes simultaneously.
fixation disparity See retinal disparity; fusional movements.
fixation disparity unit, Mallett See Mallett fixation disparity unit.
eccentric fixation Monocular condition in which the image of the point of fixation is not formed on the foveola. In this condition, the patients feel that they are looking straight at the object stimulating the non-foveolar retinal area and the visual acuity of that eye is reduced. The condition occurs most commonly in strabismic amblyopia but can also occur when the fovea has been destroyed by some pathological process. Syn. anomalous fixation. See Haidinger's brushes; occlusion treatment; penalization; pleoptics; Maxwell's spot; after-image transfer test; eccentric viewing; Visuscope.
foveal fixation Normal fixation in which the image of an object falls on the foveola.
line of fixation See fixation axis.
fixation movements See fixation movements.
parafoveal fixation Fixation by a retinal area located outside the fovea but within the macula (or fovea centralis ), i.e. within 5 degrees of the central visual field. It may occur in amblyopia.
plane of fixation See plane of regard.
point of fixation Point in space upon which the eye is directed, either monocularly or binocularly. If there is no eccentric fixation, the image of that point is formed on the foveola. Syn. object of regard. See point of regard.
fixation reflex See fixation reflex.
fixation response Eye movement aimed at placing the image of a point of fixation on the foveola.
voluntary fixation Conscious fixation of an object as distinguished from the fixation reflex.

fix·a·tion

(fik-sā'shŭn)
The condition of being firmly attached or set.
[L. figo, pp. fixus, to fix, fasten]

fixation

(fiksā´shən),
n the act or result of fixing, such as being bound or limited in position or relationship.
fixation, biphase pin,
fixation, elastic band,
n the stabilization of fractured segments of the jaws by means of intermaxillary or maxillomandibular elastic bands applied to splints or appliances.
fixation, external pin,
fixation, intermaxillary,
n See fixation, maxillomandibular.
fixation, intraosseous,
n the reduction and stabilization of fractured bony parts by direct fixation to one another with surgical wires, screws, pins, and/or plates.
fixation, mandibulomaxillary,
n See fixation, maxillomandibular.
fixation, maxillomandibular (mandibulomaxillary fixation),
n a retention of fractures of the maxillae or mandible in the functional relations with the opposing dental arch through the use of elastic wire ligatures and interdental wiring and/or splints.
fixation, nasomandibular,
n a mandibular immobilization, especially for edentulous jaws, using mandibulomaxillary splints, circummandibular wiring, and intraoral interosseous wiring through the nasal process of the maxillae.
fixation, of elements by the skeleton,
n the fixation of many elements for long periods in the bone matrix as a result of a special affinity of the elements for the matrix. Recent work with radioactive isotopes has firmly established the concept of the skeleton as a dynamic system. In addition to the changes in structure and distribution of the bone mineral mediated by cellular activity, every ionic grouping in the mineral is capable of replacement.
fixation, osseous,
n the immobilization of fractured bony segments.
fixation, radiographic,
n in film processing, the chemical removal of all the undeveloped salts of the film emulsion, so that only the developed (reduced) silver will remain as a permanent image.
fixation, restorative,
n the act of securing in position, usually by means of cementation, some treatment appliance such as a crown or fixed partial denture so that it cannot be removed.
fixation, Roger-Anderson pin,
n.pr an appliance used in extraoral fixation of mandibular fractures and prognathisms. See also appliance, fracture.

fixation

1. the act or operation of holding, suturing or fastening in a fixed position, e.g. in orthopedic surgery.
2. the condition of being held in a fixed position.
3. in microscopy, the treatment of material so that its structure can be examined in detail with minimal alteration from the normal state, and also to provide information concerning the chemical properties (as of cell constituents) by interpretation of fixation reactions.
4. in chemistry, the process whereby a substance is removed from the gaseous or solution phase and localized.
5. in film processing, the chemical removal of all undeveloped salts of the film emulsion, as on x-ray films.
6. in genetic terms means the attainment, by selection, of homozygosity in a population with respect to one or more favorable genes.

bilateral-bipolar fixation (Type III)
a combination of Type II and Type I with three connecting bars on three planes.
bilateral-unipolar fixation (Type II)
full pins are applied to fracture fragments and connected on both sides so it can only be used on the radius or tibia.
circular external skeletal fixation
complement fixation, fixation of complement
see complement fixation tests.
external skeletal fixation
a method of immobilizing fracture fragments using percutaneous pins that penetrate the bone and are stabilized, one to the other, by one or more external connecting rods.
Enlarge picture
External fixation. By permission from Slatter D, Textbook of Small Animal Surgery, Saunders, 2002
unilateral-bipolar fixation (Type 1b)
usually applied to the radius or tibia; half pins and connectors are placed in two planes.
unilateral-unipolar fixation (Type 1a)
half pins and external connector are placed usually on the medial radius and tibia and the lateral femur or humerus.
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