A plasma glycoprotein that is found in both the free state and covalently bound to the heavy chains of certain protease inhibitors. It may participate in cell growth, oocyte cumulus expansion and stabilization.


A gene on chromosome 9q32-q33 that encodes alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor protein, which is expressed in liver and secreted in plasma. Alpha-1-microglobulin belongs to the superfamily of lipocalin transport proteins and plays a role in regulating inflammation; bikunin belongs to the superfamily of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors and plays a key role in many physiological and pathological processes, by inhibiting trypsin, plasmin and lysosomal granulocytic elastase, as well as calcium oxalate crystallisation.
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sup][32],[33] Contrastly, extracellular serine protease inhibitors, such as aprotinin and bikunin, have been shown to decrease channel activity.
OS upregulates the expression of various factors, including bikunin, osteopontin (OPN), and the Tamm-Horsfall protein, and activates the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway.
Ulinastatin is also called urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), HI-30, or bikunin.
Se han descrito inhibidores multidominios de la familia BPTI/ Kunitz, como el bikunin (Zhuo et al.
The paper is titled "The proteoglycan bikunin has a defined sequence.
Exposure of renal epithelial cells to CaOx crystals results in the increased synthesis of osteopontin, bikunin, heparan sulphate, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-l, and prostaglandin (PG) E2, which are known to participate in inflammatory processes and in extracellular matrix production.
Immunohistochemical demonstration of bikunin, a light chain of inter-[alpha]-trypsin inhibitor, in human brain tumors.
Bikunin is the active subunit of protein/carbohydrate complexes that together comprise the inter-[alpha]inhibitor protein family, which plays a major role in extracellular matrix stability and integrity (Bost et al.
Finally, the use of recombinant bikunin as a xylose acceptor enabled an accurate and sensitive determination of XT-I activity, even in human serum (13,14).
Plasma bikunin as a favorable prognostic factor in ovarian cancer.
Unlike other members of the inter-[alpha]-trypsin inhibitor family (12, 13), ITIH4 is present in plasma as a single-chain protein because its COOH terminus lacks the consensus sequence (DPHFII) for bikunin assembly through the glycosaminoglycan bridges (2, 3, 12-14).