bicuspid aortic valve


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valve

 [valv]
a membranous fold in a canal or passage that prevents backward flow of material passing through it.
aortic valve a semilunar valve that separates the left ventricle and the aorta; it opens with end diastole, causing the second heart sound.
atrioventricular v's the cardiac valves between the right atrium and right ventricle (tricuspid valve) and the left atrium and left ventricle (mitral valve).
bicuspid valve mitral valve.
bicuspid aortic valve a congenital anomaly of the aortic valve, caused by incomplete separation of two of the three cusps; it is generally asymptomatic early in life but is predisposed to calcification and stenosis later on.
Braschi valve a one-way valve put into the inspiratory limb of a ventilator circuit in order to measure the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure.
cardiac v's valves that control flow of blood through and from the heart.
coronary valve a valve at the entrance of the coronary sinus into the right atrium.
flail mitral valve a mitral valve having a cusp that has lost its normal support (as in ruptured chordae tendineae) and flutters in the blood stream.
heart v's cardiac valves.
Heimlich valve a small one-way valve used for chest drainage, emptying into a flexible collection device; the valve prevents return of gases or fluids into the pleural space. The Heimlich valve is less than 13 cm (5 inches) long and facilitates patient ambulation; it can be used in many patients instead of a traditional water seal drainage system.
ileocecal valve (ileocolic valve) the valve guarding the opening between the ileum and cecum.
mitral valve the cardiac valve between the left atrium and left ventricle, usually having two cusps (anterior and posterior). Called also bicuspid valve.
Valves of the heart. The right heart pumps the venous blood into the lungs. The oxygenated blood returns from the lungs into the left atrium and is propelled by the left ventricle into the aorta. The insets show closed valves: the tricuspid valve has three leaflets, whereas the mitral valve has two leaflets. The aortic and pulmonary artery valves have three leaflets and resemble one another except for the fact that the coronary arteries originate from behind the cusps in the aorta. From Damjanov, 1996.
posterior urethral valve any of various types of congenital folds across the proximal part of the male urethra near the seminal colliculus, the most common cause of urethral obstruction in male infants.
pulmonary valve (pulmonic valve) the pocketlike cardiac valve that protects the orifice between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pyloric valve a prominent fold of mucous membrane at the pyloric orifice of the stomach.
semilunar v's the cardiac valves that have semilunar cusps; see aortic valve and pulmonary valve.
thebesian valve coronary valve.
tricuspid valve the cardiac valve guarding the opening between the right atrium and right ventricle.
valve of vein (venous v's) any of the small cusps or folds found in the tunica intima of many veins, serving to prevent backflow of blood.

fa·mil·i·al a·or·tic ec·ta·si·a syn·drome

the concurrence as an autosomal dominant trait of bicuspid aortic valve often with premature calcification, ectasia, and dissection of the aorta and, rarely, coarctation of the aorta. Superficially resembles the Marfan syndrome.

bicuspid aortic valve

A congenital heart defect in which the aortic annulus has 2 instead of 3 semilunar valves, a finding in up to 3% of the population. The male:female ratio is 4:1; 20% of those with a bicuspid aortic valves have other cardiac defects—e.g., patent ductus arteriosus or aortic coarctation. The valve is subjected to abnormal hemodynamic stress, leading to leaflet thickening, calcification and aortic stenosis; in absence of other cardiac defects, bicuspid aortic valves are not associated with increased mortality.

Molecular pathology
BAVs are associated with an increase in aneurysms of the ascending aorta, which is attributed to an alteration of the extracellular matrix and an increase in the ratio of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)1.

bicuspid aortic valve

Cardiology A congenital heart defect in which the aortic annulus has 2 instead of 3 semilunar valves, seen in 3% of the population; ♂:♀, 4:1; 20% of those with a BAV have other cardiovascular disease–eg, PDA or aortic coarctation; the valve is subjected to abnormal hemodynamic stress, leading to leaflet thickening, calcification and aortic stenosis. See Aortic stenosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Transthoracic echocardiography showed vegetations on a bicuspid aortic valve.
Presence of a congenitally bicuspid aortic valve among patients having combined mitral and aortic valve replacement.
It is well appreciated that the bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is usually of congenital origin.
Transesophageal echocardiography also suggested the incidental finding of a bicuspid aortic valve.
Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated dilatation of ascending aorta, left ventricular hypertrophy, bicuspid aortic valve, and collaterals flow at descending aorta.
Septal defects, such as bicuspid aortic valve, commonly described as a "hole in the heart," where the heart developed abnormally, causing the connection of the heart and its blood vessels to be deranged.
Valvular aortic stenosis (AS) is typically the result of degenerative changes in an otherwise normally structured aortic valve, rheumatic valve disease, or a congenitally bicuspid aortic valve.
Physical examination and l aboratory studies showed stenotic bicuspid aortic valve, dilatation of the ascending aorta, discrete coarctation at the isthmic localization, PDA, aneurysmatic structure at the posterior of ascending aorta and endarteritis with no vegetation at any localization (Fig.
Thus, the perfect left bundle branch block in this patient suggests a supraventricular tachycardia with the new onset of left bundle branch block, which could be rate related and/or due to temporary or permanent damage to the left bundle branch during removal of the patient's heavily calcified bicuspid aortic valve and its replacement with a 29-mm St.