An epidemiologic study cannot establish causality, but it appears likely that these findings stem from two trends that occurred during the same time frame: The prevalence of smoking has increased among women, and the composition of cigarette smoke has changed, with higher concentrations of tobacco-specific ni-trosamines and of beta-naphthylamine
, a known bladder carcinogen.
Experimental production of bladder tumours in dogs by administration of beta-naphthylamine.
The role of aniline, benzidine, alpha-naphthylamine, and beta-naphthylamine.
Cancer incidence and mortality among beta-naphthylamine and benzidine dye workers in Moscow.
Mortality among workers exposed to aromatic amines in the last beta-naphthylamine manufacturing facility in the United States.