beta radiation


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be·ta ra·di·a·tion

radiant energy from a source of beta rays.

radiation

The combined processes of emission, transmission and absorption of highly energetic waves and particles on the electromagnetic spectrum treatment to kill cancer cells. See Acute radiation injury, Alpha radiation, Background radiation, Chemoradiation, Coherent radiation, Corpuscular radiation, Definitive radiation, Electromagnetic radiation, External radiation, Gamma radiation, Grenz radiation, Implant radiation, Internal radiation, Ionizing radiation, Non-ionizing radiation, Remnant radiation, Scattered radiation, Synchrotron radiation, Total body irradiation Clinical practice The direct, band-like extension of a sensation, in particular of pain, from a point of origin to another region of the body. Cf Referred pain Oncology The administration of ionizing radiation to kill malignant tumor cells. See Radiation fibrosis, Radiation therapy.
Radiation  
Alpha radiation 2 protons and 2 neutrons, eg plutonium, radon; α radiation travels 15 cm in air and is stopped by a piece of paper; proven role in soft tissue malignancy–see Radium Dial company, relationship with epithelial malignancy is uncertain; it is present in cigarette smoke and may have an additive effect to the known carcinogenic effect of tar; emitted by radium, thorium, uranium.
Beta radiation Electrons, eg strontium-90, tritium–3H; β radiation travels at the speed of light, is stopped by wood and thin metals and is carcinogenic to skin
Gamma radiation Gamma photon A quantum of electromagnetic radiation of ≤ 1 nm, which is generated by unstable nuclei eg 60Co; γ radiation is stopped by several feet of heavy concrete or 10-40 cm of lead and is linked to cancer, inducing mutations at the glycophorin A locus in survivors of atomic blasts; 183/105 excess deaths in survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts, with a 13-fold ↑ in non-lymphocytic leukemia–peaking at 6 yrs post-blast, thyroid nodules and tumors–peaking at 15-20 years post-blast and multiple myeloma 6-fold ↑–peaking 30 yrs post-blast

Beta radiation

Streams of electrons emitted by beta emitters like carbon-14 and radium.

beta

the second letter of the Greek alphabet, B or β; used to denote the second position in a chemical classification system. Often used in names of chemical compounds to distinguish one of two or more isomers or to indicate the position of substituent atoms or groups in certain compounds. Also used to distinguish types of radioactive decay; brain rhythms or waves; adrenergic receptors; secretory cells of the various organs of the body that stain with basic dyes, such as the beta cells of the pancreas; and the type of hemolysis induced by bacteria that results in a zone of complete hemolysis when grown on blood agar, except for staphylococci.

beta adrenergic
beta-adrenergic receptors,
β-adrenergic receptors specific sites on effector cells that respond to epinephrine. There are two types: β1-receptors, found in the heart and small intestine, and β2-receptors, found in the bronchi, blood vessels and uterus.
beta agonists
beta barrels
a form of secondary structure of a polypeptide in which β strands of amino acids are wound into a super secondary structure; usually interconnected by α helical regions of the polypeptide on the outside of the molecule.
beta-blocker
a drug that blocks the action of epinephrine at beta-adrenergic receptors on cells of effector organs. There are two types of these receptors: β1-receptors in the myocardium and β2-receptors in the bronchial and vascular smooth muscles. The principal effects of beta-adrenergic stimulation are increased heart rate and contractility, vasodilation of the arterioles that supply the skeletal muscles, and relaxation of bronchial muscles.
beta brain waves
those having a frequency of more than 10 hertz (pulsations per second); seen during wakefulness. See also electroencephalography.
beta-carboline indoleamine alkaloid
poisoning causes a nervous syndrome of hyper- or hypomotility, muscle tremor, flexed paresis of fore- or hindlimbs, hypermetria, walking backwards, convulsions. A plant poison found in Peganum, Tribulus, Kallstroemia spp.
beta carbon
carbon-3 of a molecule or the carbon atom two on from the function group of a molecule, the carbon(s) of which are not included in the lettering.
beta-endorphin
hormone secreted by central nervous system, hypothalamus, gastrointestinal tract. See also endorphin.
beta fibrillosis
beta-folded domains
compact, locally folded region of tertiary structure containing the β-sheets or β-turns.
beta hemolysin
is a sphingomyelinase and is produced by staphylococci. It produces partial hemolysis of sheep and cattle erythrocytes. It appears to have little pathogenic effect. See also beta hemolysis.
beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl coenzyme A
1. intermediate in the formation of ketones.
2. key starting compound in the synthesis of cholesterol.
beta-hydroxybutyrate
salt of the major circulating ketone body in animals, formed from the reduction of acetoacetic acid.
beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase
mitochondrial enzyme catalyzing the NADH-linked-reduction of acetoacetate to β-hydroxybutyrate.
beta-ketobutyric acid
beta particle
an electron emitted from a nucleus.
beta radiation
see radiation injury, radiotherapy.
beta sheet (β-sheet)
a common structural feature of many proteins in which the single polypeptide chain is folded back and forth upon itself with each folded section running in an opposite direction to its nearest neighbors. The folded sections are held together by hydrogen bonds and the arrangement which occurs, particularly in the core of proteins, confers great stability on the molecule.
beta subunit
second-named chain (or subunit) occurring in the functional organization of macromolecules, usually proteins, containing two or more chains.
References in periodicals archive ?
4%) treated with adjunctive beta radiation experienced recurrences, the actual recurrence rates in this population are therefore probably higher.
START was a double-blind, international multicenter trial in which 476 patients were randomized to brachytherapy using the Novoste beta radiation system or to sham brachytherapy following successful angioplasty for in-stent restenosis.
90]Sr beta radiation at four different artificial doses (NTL+ATL).
When the nuclei of the atoms making up a lump of radioactive material decay, they may produce not only alpha and beta radiation but the very high energy, and hence ionizing, gamma radiation.
Unlike other detectors, this spectrometer is more efficient, and able to measure and quantify both gamma and beta radiation at the same time," said David Hamby, an OSU professor of health physics.
Beta radiation has shown desirable effects in the treatment of restenosis, the regrowth of scar tissue associated with balloon angioplasty failure.
badge dosimeters that were unreliable for measuring both external gamma and beta radiation.
It is the only keychain-style personal radiation detector that detects Beta radiation, which includes Strontium-90, a grave concern for dirty bombs.
Sealed patches containing radioactive phosphorus-32 that deliver beta radiation to the cancer site were custom-made according to the shape and size of each patient's skin cancer lesions.
Sirtex's SIR-Spheres microspheres are radioactive polymer spheres that emit beta radiation.
a) liquid scintillation counter to measure beta radiation equipment - 1 set
EndoSonics has been developing the device, named BRIGADE -- Beta Radiation with IVUS Guidance And Directed Energy -- in conjunction with Drs.