Therefore, the development of pancreatic progenitor into beta cells
depends on their orientation in the pipes.
Mean numbers of islets, their diameter and number of beta cells
were recorded using micrometry under light microscope.
Synergetic inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-induced apoptosis in human pancreatic beta cells
by Bcl-2 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis.
In previous studies the Cardiff team isolated a killer T-cell from a patient with type 1 diabetes to view the unique interaction which kills the insulin-producing beta cells
in the pancreas.
Even Melton's lab has shown various other ways to make insulin-secreting cells, including: stimulating growth of pancreatic beta cells
(which improves glucose tolerance) by expression of betatrophin growth factor; direct reprogramming to turn other pancreatic cells into new insulin-secreting cells within the body; and regeneration of insulin-secreting beta cells
by the normal pancreas, achieved by stopping the autoimmune attack typical of Type 1 diabetes.
In his latest study, Zaghouani used Ig-GAD2 and then injected adult stem cells from bone marrow into the pancreas in the hope that the stem cells would evolve into beta cells
The beta cells
are differnt in pattern amongst species but they are always clumped together with an adjacent mix of non-beta cells
One hypothesis is that through directed differentiation, pluripotent stem cells can be differentiated into functional insulin secreting beta cells
Defective insulin secretion and increased susceptibility to experimental diabetes are induced by reduced Akt activity in pancreatic islet beta cells
Then they measured how well beta cells
in the pancreas secreted insulin.
Royal College of Surgeons' Professor Jochen Prehn said: "There is tremendous hope there is capacity to regenerate beta cells
or protect them against immune cell attack.
Melton and colleagues reported they took skin cells from two Type 1 diabetes patients, exposed the cells to a cocktail of three genes that converted them back to pluripotent stem cells, then instructed the newly reborn cells to grow into beta cells