beak

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beak

(bēk),
1. The nose of pliers used in dentistry for contouring and adjusting wrought or cast metal dental appliances.
2. Sometimes used to describe a beak-shaped anatomic structure.
[L. beccus]

beak

(bēk)
n.
a. The bill of a bird, especially one that is strong and curved, such as that of a hawk or a finch.
b. A similar structure in other animals, such as turtles, insects, or fish.

beaked (bēkt) adj.

beak

1 any pointed anatomical structure, such as the beak of the sphenoid bone.
2 a pair of dental pincers used in shaping prostheses.
3 a radiographic image of a bony protuberance adjacent to a degenerative intervertebral disk.

beak

  1. (also called bill) the jaws and associated horny covering in a bird or turtle.
  2. any pointed projection in plant fruits.
  3. a projecting jawbone in fish such as pike.
  4. the tip of the UMBO in bivalve molluscs.
  5. the jaws of a CEPHALOPOD such as the octopus.

beak

(bēk)
1. Nose of pliers used in dentistry to contour and adjust wrought or cast metal dental appliances.
2. Sometimes used to describe any beak-shaped anatomic structure.
[L. beccus]

beak

the hard keratinization (or rhamphotheca) which provides the horny covering of the beak bones, plus the beak bones, of birds. The dorsal ridge of the upper beak is the culmen, the similar keel of the lower beak is the gonys. The cutting edges of the beak are the tomia. Called also bill.
Enlarge picture
Different shape of beak between species. By permission from Aspinall V, O'Reilly M, Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy and Physiology, Butterworth Heinemann, 2004

beak avulsion
traumatic separation of the upper and lower beak at the base requires hand feeding for survival of the bird. Some attempts at devising an artificial beak have been made, but attachment is a major problem.
beak fracture
occurs with trauma and requires immobilization, often with innovative procedures (see acrylic glue), without restricting food intake by the bird during recovery. Severe trauma may result in avulsion of upper or lower beak.
beak necrosis
a condition of chickens and turkeys caused by excessively fine mashed feeds.
beak overgrowth
can result from malocclusion, liver disease, lack of wear, aging, nutritional deficiency, and most commonly infestation by the mite, Cnemidocoptes pilae.
psittacine beak and feather disease
see psittacine beak and feather disease.
beak sign
the radiographic feature of contrast material extending through an elongated, concentrically narrowed pylorus indicative of hypertrophy of the sphincter.
beak trimming
in most modern poultry houses the chances of cannibalism developing are so high that beak trimming is almost a necessity, especially if the birds are to be reared in full light. Light-restricted accommodation greatly reduces the prevalence of this vice. A temporary trim is done at a few days of age but a permanent trim is necessary later. Special instruments, utilizing a hot, cutting blade cautery, are used and the operation must be done by an expert or badly deformed beaks result and the birds are unable to feed properly. Alternatives to trimming include the fitting of spectacles or pick guards but these are expensive, time-consuming to put on and not feasible for birds in cages.
References in periodicals archive ?
Among the recommendations (interestingly, largely unchanged from the standards for the "Animal Care Certified" program) are 67 to 86 square inches per caged bird, beak trimming when needed, and non-feed withdrawal molts only (after January 1, 2006).
Beak trimming is permitted in laying hens without analgesia in the first 10 days of life as a 'preventative measure' to reduce the risk of cannibalism in high-density hen houses.
FF states in its standards that beak trimming "is contrary to the principles of American Humane standards.
Regular beak trimming should not be necessary, so I prefer to do any beak work, especially if it is corrective.
Animal Welfare Minister Elliot Morley praised the industry for making significant strides in improving poultry welfare and stressed he wanted to see the abolition of beak trimming as a routine practice within the industry.
We will be working closely with the industry to ensure that when the ban on beak trimming comes in, it will neither affect the welfare of the birds nor the economics of the industry,'' he said.
To date, animal welfare research has provided some behavioural and neurological evidence to inform the debate on the acceptability of routine beak trimming within the industry (see Cheng, 2006 for a recent review).
Four groups of twenty chickens had been subjected to one of 4 beak trimming methods as follows: 1) hot-blade trimming at 1 day of age, 2) infra-red beak trimming at 1 day of age, 3) hot-blade beak trimming at 10 weeks of age and 4) intact beaks.
Beak trimming is performed early in the life of commercial hens to decrease injuries caused by cannibalism, bullying and feather and vent pecking (Savory, 1995).
To study the pain associated with beak trimming and neuroma-induced changes, pain thresholds can be measured and used as an indication of neural activity.