A subsequent visit in 2008 yielded the basicranium
, an important structure for determining taxonomic relationships.
The sellar region is a relatively small area of valuable "real estate" in the basicranium.
Postgadolinium enhanced sequences are obtained with fat saturation to improve contrast between pathology and the basicranium.
Osteocartilagenous tumors (Figure 25) arising from the basicranium can extend into the cavernous sinus or suprasellar region.
This discipline allows us to study the position of the mandible and maxilla in relation to the position of the basicranium and adjacent structures.
Specific cranial landmarks were identified, and measurements were made of various aspects of the basicranium (figure 1), maxilla (figure 2), and mandible (figure 3), as well as the facial height (figure 4) and the facial axis (figure 5).
The cranium, which lacks only the nasals and basicranium, is compressed dorsoventrally and slightly toward the right.
The basicranium includes both occipital condyles, a complete foramen magnum, and the sphenoid.
A flat basicranium -- ubiquitous in nonhuman animals -- indicates that the larynx, or voide box, sits high in the neck.
Often, important features of the basicranium are poorly preserved on ancient fossils.
In comparative studies of mammals ranging from dolphins to apes, using dissections and X-ray movies, they find that a relatively straight, unflexed basicranium indicates a larynx positioned high in the neck.
6 million to 300,000 years ago, displays bending and flexing of the basicranium comparable to that of a 6-year-old child.