basal cell carcinoma
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carcinoma[kahr″sĭ-no´mah] (pl. carcinomas, carcino´mata)
a malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate surrounding tissues and to give rise to metastases. A form of cancer, carcinoma makes up the majority of the cases of malignancy of the breast, uterus, intestinal tract, skin, and tongue.
adenocystic carcinoma (adenoid cystic carcinoma) carcinoma marked by cylinders or bands of hyaline or mucinous stroma separated or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells, occurring in the mammary and salivary glands, and mucous glands of the respiratory tract. Called also cylindroma.
alveolar carcinoma bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.
basal cell carcinoma the most common form of skin cancer, consisting of an epithelial tumor of the skin originating from neoplastic differentiation of basal cells, rarely metastatic but locally invasive and aggressive. It usually occurs as small pearly nodules or plaques on the face of an older adult, particularly on a sun-exposed area of someone with fair skin. It has been divided into numerous subtypes on the basis of clinical and histological characteristics.
basosquamous carcinoma carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements.
bronchioalveolar carcinoma (bronchiolar carcinoma) (bronchioloalveolar carcinoma) (bronchoalveolar carcinoma) a variant type of adenocarcinoma of the lung, with columnar to cuboidal epithelial cells lining the alveolar septa and projecting into alveolar spaces in branching papillary formations. Called also alveolar carcinoma or adenocarcinoma and bronchiolar, bronchioloalveolar, or bronchoalveolar adenocarcinoma.
bronchogenic carcinoma any of a large group of carcinomas of the lung, so called because they arise from the epithelium of the bronchial tree. Four primary subtypes are distinguished: adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
cholangiocellular carcinoma a rare type of hepatocellular carcinoma arising from the cholangioles, consisting of two layers of cells surrounding a minute lumen. Called also bile duct carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma.
chorionic carcinoma choriocarcinoma.
colloid carcinoma mucinous carcinoma.
cylindrical cell carcinoma carcinoma in which the cells are cylindrical or nearly so.
embryonal carcinoma a highly malignant germ cell tumor that is a primitive form of carcinoma, probably of primitive embryonal cell derivation; it usually arises in a gonad and may be found either in pure form or as part of a mixed germ cell tumor.
epidermoid carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma.
giant cell carcinoma a poorly differentiated, highly malignant, epithelial neoplasm containing many large multinucleated tumor cells, such as occurs in the lungs.
hepatocellular carcinoma primary carcinoma of the liver cells with hepatomegaly, jaundice, hemoperitoneum, and other symptoms of the presence of an abdominal mass. It is rare in North America and Western Europe but is one of the most common malignancies in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, East Asia, and elsewhere. A strong association seems to exist with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
Hürthle cell carcinoma a malignant Hürthle cell tumor.
carcinoma in si´tu a neoplasm whose tumor cells are confined to the epithelium of origin, without invasion of the basement membrane; the likelihood of subsequent invasive growth is presumed to be high.
large cell carcinoma a type of bronchogenic carcinoma of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size, a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has undergone further dedifferentiation.
medullary carcinoma that composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma.
nasopharyngeal carcinoma a malignant tumor arising in the epithelial lining of the nasopharynx, occurring at high frequency in people of Chinese descent. The epstein-barr virus has been implicated as a causative agent.
non–small cell carcinoma a general term comprising all lung carcinomas except small cell carcinoma, and including adenocarcinoma of the lung, large cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.
oat cell carcinoma a form of small cell carcinoma in which the cells are round or elongated and slightly larger than lymphocytes; they have scanty cytoplasm and clump poorly.
papillary carcinoma carcinoma in which there are papillary growths that are irregular in nature arising from otherwise normal tissue; it can occur in the thyroid gland, the breast, or the bladder. Called also papillocarcinoma.
renal cell carcinoma carcinoma of the renal parenchyma, composed of tubular cells in varying arrangements; called also clear cell carcinoma.
scirrhous carcinoma carcinoma with a hard structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma. Called also fibrocarcinoma.
carcinoma sim´plex an undifferentiated carcinoma.
small cell carcinoma a common, highly malignant form of bronchogenic carcinoma in the wall of a major bronchus, occurring mainly in middle-aged individuals with a history of tobacco smoking; it is radiosensitive and has small oval undifferentiated cells. Metastasis to the hilum and to mediastinal lymph nodes is common.
spindle cell carcinoma squamous cell carcinoma marked by development of rapidly proliferating spindle cells.
squamous cell carcinoma
1. carcinoma developed from squamous epithelium, having cuboid cells and characterized by keratinization. Initially local and superficial, the lesion may later invade and metastasize.
2. the form occurring in the skin, usually originating in sun-damaged areas or preexisting lesions.
3. in the lung, one of the most common types of bronchogenic carcinoma, generally forming polypoid or sessile masses that obstruct the airways of the bronchi. It usually occurs in middle-aged individuals with a history of smoking. There is frequent invasion of blood and lymphatic vessels with metastasis to regional lymph nodes and other sites. Called also epidermoid carcinoma.
transitional cell carcinoma a malignant tumor arising from a transitional type of stratified epithelium, usually affecting the urinary bladder.
1. a variety of squamous cell carcinoma that has a predilection for the buccal mucosa but also affects other oral soft tissue and the larynx. It is slow-growing and somewhat invasive.
2. Buschke-Löwenstein tumor, so called because it is histologically similar to the oral lesion.
ba·sal cell car·ci·no·ma
a slow-growing, invasive, but usually nonmetastasizing neoplasm recapitulating normal basal cells of the epidermis or hair follicles, most commonly arising in sun-damaged skin of the elderly and fair-skinned.
Synonym(s): basal cell epithelioma
basal cell carcinoma
A slow-growing, locally invasive, but rarely metastasizing neoplasm of the skin derived from basal cells of the epidermis or hair follicles.
basal cell carcinoma
Etymology: Gk, basis + L, cella, storeroom; Gk, karkinos, crab, oma, tumor
a malignant epithelial cell tumor that begins as a pearly appearing papule and enlarges peripherally, developing a central crater that erodes, crusts, and bleeds. Metastasis is rare, but local invasion destroys underlying and adjacent tissue. It occurs most frequently in sun-exposed areas of the body, such as the face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders, and back. The primary known cause of the cancer is excessive exposure to the sun or to radiation. Treatment is eradication of the lesion, often by electrodesiccation, laser, or cryotherapy. Lesions may also be treated with topical or injection chemotherapy or radiation. Also called basal cell epithelioma, basaloma, basiloma, carcinoma basocellulare, hair matrix carcinoma. See also rodent ulcer.
basal cell carcinomaA usually indolent skin cancer that is most common in the sun-exposed regions of the head, neck and upper body in older individuals.
Local excision; in areas where tissue border may compromise function or appearance (e.g., angle of eyes, eyelids, nose), Mohs surgery may be indicated.
Basal cell carcinomas appear to arise from two distinct cell types: interfollicular epidermal basal keratinocytes, which are hedgehog-driven tumours, and follicular epidermal basal keratinocytes, which arise from the so-called bulge stem.
• Adenoid basal cell carcinoma.
• Basosquamous basal cell carcinoma.
• Cystic basal cell carcinoma.
• Fibroepithelial basal cell carcinoma.
• Infiltrating basal cell carcinoma.
• Infundibulo-cystic basal cell carcinoma.
• Keratotic basal cell carcinoma.
• Metatypical basal cell carcinoma.
• Micronodular basal cell carcinoma.
• Nodular (solid) basal cell carcinoma.
• Pigmented basal cell carcinoma.
• Sclerosing basal cell carcinoma.
• Superficial basal cell carcinoma.
• Adenomatoid basal cell carcinoma.
• Clear cell basal cell carcinoma.
• Follicular basal cell carcinoma.
• Giant cell basal cell carcinoma.
• Granular cell basal cell carcinoma.
• Pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma.
• Signet ring basal cell carcinoma.
• Basal cell carcinomas with adnexal differentiation (eccrine, apocrine and sebaceous).
• Basal cell carcinoma with matricial differentiation.
• Basal cell carcinoma with myoepithelial differentiation.
• Basal cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation.
basal cell carcinomaBasal cell cancer, Ronald Reagan tumor Dermatology A usually indolent skin cancer most common in the sun-exposed regions of the head, neck, and upper body in older individuals Treatment Local excision; if areas where tissue border may compromise function or appearance–eg, angle of eyes, eyelids, nose, Mohs surgery may be indicated
ba·sal cell car·ci·no·ma, basal cell epithelioma (bā'săl sel kahr'si-nō'mă,ep'i-thē-lē-ō'mă)
A slow-growing, malignant, but usually nonmetastasizing epithelial neoplasm of the epidermis or hair follicles, most commonly arising in sun-damaged skin of the elderly and fair-skinned. Cryotherapy is the primary treatment to eradicate the lesion.
basal cell carcinomaAbbreviation: BCC
The most common human cancer, typically found on skin exposed to sun or other forms of ultraviolet light. Although it is sometimes locally invasive, it rarely metastasizes to other organs. Typically it begins as a small, shiny papule. The lesion enlarges to form a whitish border around a central depression or ulcer that may bleed. When the lesion reaches this stage, it is often called a rodent ulcer. After biopsy, the removal method used is determined by the size, location, and appearance of the lesion. Synonym: basal cell epithelioma; epithelial cancer See: illustrationillustration
See also: carcinoma
basal cell carcinomaRodent ulcer. A common and increasingly common skin cancer representing about 80 per cent of all skin cancers. BCC can be very destructive locally if neglected, but rarely spreads to other parts of the body. It is related to excessive exposure to ultraviolet light from sunlight and sun beds.
basal cell carcinoma; BCC; rodent ulcer common skin malignancy caused by long-term exposure to ultraviolet light (sunlight) or irradiation, or from pre-existing naevoid lesions; forms as a pearly nodule that later ulcerates; is locally invasive, but rarely metastatic; treated by excision ± skin graft (see Table 1)
|Benign||Seborrhoeic warts (basal cell papilloma)||Slow-growing, clearly demarcated, pigmented, 'stuck-on' dermal lesions that may form skin tags, occurring especially around the neck in obese individuals|
|Premalignant||Solar keratoses||Slow-growing pink/grey-brown scaly epidermal lesions occurring in sun-exposed|
|skin (dorsa of hands, lower leg, face, bald pate) in subjects >60 years of age; lesions should be regularly monitored as they may undergo malignant changes|
|Bowen's disease||Intraepidermal carcinoma (epithelioma) presenting as a small, slow-growing scaly plaque that can become nodular or ulcerate if the lesion extends into the dermis; these lesions should be removed or treated with a topical chemotherapeutic agent such as 5-fluorouracil|
|Malignant||Squamous cell carcinoma||Keratotic, scaly, elevated or nodular lesion with a depressed centre that may ulcerate, arising in sun-exposed skin; these lesions must undergo biopsy as they may metastasize|
|Basal cell carcinoma (rodent ulcer)||Low-grade malignant lesion due to a locally invasive epidermal tumour, with a pearly raised edge and a tendency to central ulceration; these lesions must be biopsied as they may metastasize|
|Malignant melanoma||Virulent skin tumour, with 30% of incidence involving lower limb, most commonly occurring after 40 years of age in areas of sun-exposed or non-sun-exposed skin; lesions classically are raised, itchy, may bleed and show an irregular border and irregular pigmentation and/or Hutchinson's sign; these lesions must be biopsied as they may metastasize|
ba·sal cell car·ci·no·ma, basal cell epithelioma (bā'săl sel kahr'si-nō'mă, ep'i-thē-lē-ō'mă)
A slow-growing, invasive, but usually nonmetastasizing neoplasm recapitulating normal basal cells of the epidermis or hair follicles; most commonly found in sun-damaged skin of old people and fair-skinned people of any age group.
a malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate surrounding tissues and to give rise to metastases. A form of cancer, carcinoma makes up the majority of the cases of malignancy of the mammary gland, uterus, intestinal tract, skin and tongue.
acinic cell carcinoma
locally invasive salivary gland tumors of dogs, and rarely other species, composed of glandular epithelium in an acinar pattern.
adenocystic carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma
carcinoma marked by cylinders or bands of hyaline or mucinous stroma separated or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells, occurring in the mammary and salivary glands, and mucous glands of the respiratory tract. Called also cylindroma.
see apocrine tumors.
basal cell carcinoma
an epithelial tumor of the skin that seldom metastasizes but has potential for local invasion and destruction. Common in dogs and cats.
carcinoma that histologically exhibits both basal and squamous elements.
carcinoma of the lung, so called because it arises from the epithelium of the bronchial tree.
primary carcinoma of the liver originating in bile duct cells.
cylindrical cell carcinoma
carcinoma in which the cells are cylindrical or nearly so.
a highly malignant primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad.
that in which the cells tend to differentiate in the same way as those of the epidermis; i.e. they tend to form prickle cells and undergo cornification.
giant cell carcinoma
carcinoma containing many giant cells.
primary carcinoma of the liver cells.
Hürthle cell carcinoma
see hürthle cell tumor.
carcinoma in situ
a neoplastic entity wherein the tumor cells have not invaded the basement membrane but are still confined to the epithelium of origin; popularly applied to such cells in the uterine cervix.
a bronchogenic tumor of undifferentiated (anaplastic) cells of large size.
that composed mainly of epithelial elements with little or no stroma.
adenocarcinoma producing significant amounts of mucin.
carcinoma in which there are papillary excrescences; called also papillocarcinoma.
carcinoma with a hard structure owing to the formation of dense connective tissue in the stroma.
an undifferentiated carcinoma.
carcinoma of skin
squamous cell carcinomas occur on the third eyelid, cornea or the eyelid of cattle and horses, on the penis and prepuce of horses, from the mucosa of the frontal sinus to invade the horn core of cattle (called also horn cancer), on the ears of sheep, on the vulva of ewes when the tail is docked too short. In goats the ears, udder, base of the horn and perineum are also susceptible sites. The tumors grow rapidly, show considerable invasiveness and often metastasize to local lymph nodes. In dogs and cats, squamous cell carcinomas are common, particularly on the face and pinnae of white cats. See also squamous cell carcinoma (below).
a radiosensitive tumor composed of clusters of small, oval, undifferentiated cells that have hyperchromatic nuclei and scant cytoplasm and are typically bronchogenic. Called also oat-cell carcinoma.
spindle cell carcinoma
squamous cell carcinoma marked by fusiform development or rapidly proliferating cells.
squamous cell carcinomas occur in the stomach of the horse and the bovine rumen. The associated clinical syndrome in the horse is one of indigestion and weight loss. Metastasis occurs commonly. In cows there may be vagus indigestion or chronic tympany of the rumen.
transitional cell carcinoma
occurs mainly in the urinary bladder of older dogs. Several structural types may be observed: papillary, polypoid, fungoid or sessile. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes and lungs is possible.
occurs rarely in mares and doe goats.