barotrauma

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barotrauma

 [bar″o-traw´mah]
injury caused by pressure differences between the external environment and the inside of a bodily structure. Seen with structures of the ear, in high altitude flyers and others (see barotitis media and barosinusitis). In the lung it is caused by excessive airway pressures, resulting in extra-alveolar air, as in pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, or pneumoperitoneum.

bar·o·trau·ma

(băr'ō-traw'mă),
A term previously used to describe injury to the middle ear or paranasal sinuses, resulting from imbalance between ambient pressure and that within the affected cavity. Now mostly used to refer to lung injury due to pressure such as occurs when a patient is on a ventilator and is subjected to high airway pressure (pulmonary barotrauma).
[G. baros, weight, + trauma]

barotrauma

/baro·trau·ma/ (-traw´mah) injury due to pressure, as to structures of the ear, in high-altitude flyers, owing to differences between atmospheric and intratympanic pressures; see barosinusitis and barotitis.

barotrauma

[ber′ōtrô′mə, -trou′mə]
Etymology: Gk, baros + trauma, wound
physical injury sustained as a result of exposure to changing air pressure, or rupture of the tympanic membranes, as may occur among scuba divers or caisson workers or anyone near nuclear or atomic blasts. Barotrauma may be iatrogenic as in the case of excessive ventilator pressures leading to lung injury. Compare decompression sickness.

barotrauma

ENT
Middle-ear injury which occurs while flying or scuba diving, caused by major disparities in air pressure between the middle ear and the nasopharynx—which is usually equilibrated by an open eustachian tube.
 
Clinical findings
Disequilibrium, disorientation, nausea, vomiting.

Sports medicine
Tissue injury due to the failure of a gas-filled body space—e.g., lungs, middle ear, sinuses—to equilibrate internal pressure to ambient pressure; because the cavities located within a bone cannot collapse, the space they occupy is filled with oedema in the mucosal membrane or haemorrhage. Barotrauma often results from rapid or extreme changes in external pressure—e.g., explosions.

barotrauma

Audiology Middle ear injury caused by ↑ air pressure; trauma to the inner ear 2º to atmospheric pressure alteration, which occurs while flying or deep water diving, resulting in ↓ visual and proprioceptive cues due to ↓ vestibular input Clinical Disequilibrium, disorientation, N&V Sports medicine Tissue injury due to the failure of a gas-filled body space–eg, lungs, middle ear, sinuses, to equalize internal pressure to ambient pressure; barotrauma often results from rapid or extreme changes in external pressure–eg, explosions. See Atmospheric inner ear barotruma, Pulmonary barotrauma.

bar·o·trau·ma

(bar'ō-traw'mă)
1. Injury to the middle ear or paranasal sinuses, resulting from imbalance between ambient pressure and that within the affected cavity.
See also: aerotitis, barotitis media
2. Lung injury that occurs when a patient is on a ventilator and is subjected toexcessive airway pressure (pulmonary barotrauma).
[G. baros, weight, + trauma]

barotrauma

Injury resulting from changes in atmospheric (barometric) pressure as in aircraft flight. Barotrauma mostly affects the ear drums when there is obstruction to the EUSTACHIAN TUBES. The most serious forms of barotrauma result from explosive noise which can literally shake the delicate hair-cell transducers in the middle ear to pieces.

barotrauma

damage caused by change in pressure around the body (ambient pressure). Divers can be affected painfully by inequality between high ambient pressure at depth and that in closed internal air-containing spaces: the sinuses or the middle ear (aural barotrauma: inward bulging or at worst rupture of the eardrum, if the Eustachian tube is blocked). During surfacing the danger is pulmonary barotrauma: rupture of the lung surface by expanding air, with escape into the pleural cavity (pneumothorax) when surfacing without effective exhalation. See also decompression illness, diving.