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1. The envelope or covering of the roots, trunk, and branches of plants. Barks of pharmacologic significance not listed below are alphabetized under specific names.
2. Synonym(s): cinchona
bark(bahrk) the rind or outer cortical cover of the woody parts of a plant, tree, or shrub.
cramp bark the dried bark of Viburnum opulus, the high bush or cranberry tree; it has been used as an antispasmodic, uterine sedative, and antiscorbutic.
elm bark , slippery elm bark the dried inner bark of the slippery elm, Ulmus rubra, which is mucilaginous and demulcent.
white willow bark a preparation of the bark of various Salix species collectively known as white willow, containing salicin, a precursor of salicylic acid; used as an antiinflammatory and antipyretic.
yohimbe bark a preparation of the bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe, used for the same indications as yohimbine hydrochloride; it has also been used traditionally as an aphrodisiac and for skin diseases and obesity.
The outer covering of trees and some plants, which consists of a cuticle (epidermis), outer bark (cortex) and inner bark (fibre).
(1) China, see there.
(2) Cinchona, see there; Cinchona species.
The harsh sound uttered by a dog.
barkthe outer, living part of a woody stem, consisting of three layers:
- an inner layer called secondary PHLOEM, containing the elements of primary phloem plus horizontal ray cells which function in transporting materials across the stem.
- a middle layer of cork CAMBIUM, a group of meristematic (dividing) cells originating in the PARENCHYMA cells of the outer stem cortex. As the cells divide, the outer ones develop into cork cells and the inner ones give rise to parenchyma-like tissue.
- CORK, an outer region of cells forming a waterproof and protective layer broken only by LENTICELS.
1. the voice of the dog.
2. the outer covering of a tree.
a form of pica often indicative of boredom, nutritional deficiency of fiber or behavioral problem.