balloon valvuloplasty


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Balloon Valvuloplasty

 

Definition

Balloon valvuloplasty is a procedure in which a narrowed heart valve is stretched open using a procedure that does not require open heart surgery.

Purpose

There are four valves in the heart, which are located at the exit of each of the four chambers of the heart. They are called aortic valve, pulmonary valve, mitral valve, and tricuspid valve. The valves open and close to regulate the blood flow from one chamber to the next. They are vital to the efficient functioning of the heart.
In some people the valves are too narrow (a condition called stenosis). Balloon valvuloplasty is performed on children and adults to improve valve function and blood flow by enlarging the valve opening. It is a treatment for aortic, mitral, and pulmonary stenosis. Balloon valvuloplasty has the best results as a treatment for narrowed pulmonary valves. Results in treating narrowing of the mitral valve are generally good. It is more difficult to perform and less successful in treating narrowing of the aortic valve.

Description

Balloon valvuloplasty is a procedure in which a thin tube (catheter) that has a small deflated balloon at the tip is inserted through the skin in the groin area into a blood vessel, and then is threaded up to the opening of the narrowed heart valve. The balloon is inflated, which stretches the valve open. This procedure cures many valve obstructions. It is also called balloon enlargement of a narrowed heart valve.

Key terms

Cardiac catheterization — A technique used to evaluate the heart and fix certain problems. Catheterization is far less invasive than traditional surgery.
Stenosis — The narrowing of any valve, especially one of the heart valves or the opening into the pulmonary artery from the right ventricle.
Valve — Tissue in the passageways between the heart's upper and lower chambers that controls passage of blood and prevents regurgitation.
The procedure is performed in a cardiac catheterization laboratory and takes up to four hours. The patient is usually awake, but is given local anesthesia to make the area where the catheter is inserted numb. After the site where the catheter will be inserted is prepared and anesthetized, the cardiologist inserts a catheter into the appropriate blood vessel, then passes a balloon-tipped catheter through the first catheter. Guided by a video monitor and an x ray, the physician slowly threads the catheter into the heart. The deflated balloon is positioned in the valve opening, then is inflated repeatedly. The inflated balloon widens the valve's opening by splitting the valve leaflets apart. Once the valve is widened, the balloon-tipped catheter is removed. The other catheter remains in place for 6 to 12 hours because in some cases the procedure must be repeated.

Preparation

For at least six hours before balloon valvuloplasty, the patient will have to avoid eating or drinking anything. An intravenous line is inserted so that medications can be administered. The patient's groin area is shaved and cleaned with an antiseptic. About an hour before the procedure, the patient is given an oral sedative such as diazepam (Valium).

Aftercare

After balloon valvuloplasty, the patient is sent to the recovery room for several hours, where he or she is monitored for vital signs (such as pulse and breathing) and heart sounds. An electrocardiogram, which is a record of the electrical impulses in the heart, is done. The leg in which the catheter was inserted is temporarily prevented from moving. The skin condition is monitored. The insertion site, which will be covered by a sandbag, is observed for bleeding until the catheter is removed. Intravenous fluids will be given to help eliminate the x-ray dye; intravenous blood thinners or other medications to dilate the coronary arteries may be given. Pain medication is available.
For at least 30 minutes after removal of the catheter, direct pressure is applied to the site of insertion; after this a pressure dressing will be applied. Following discharge from the hospital, the patient can usually resume normal activities. After balloon valvuloplasty lifelong follow-up is necessary because valves sometimes degenerate or narrowing recurs, making surgery necessary.

Risks

Balloon valvuloplasty can have serious complications. For example, the valve can become misshapen so that it doesn't close completely, which makes the condition worse. Embolism, where pieces of the valve break off and travel to the brain or the lungs, is another possible risk. If the procedure causes severe damage to the valve leaflets, immediate surgery is required. Less frequent complications are bleeding and hematoma (a local collection of clotted blood) at the puncture site, abnormal heart rhythms, reduced blood flow, heart attack, heart puncture, infection, and circulatory problems.

Resources

Organizations

American Heart Association. 7320 Greenville Ave. Dallas, TX 75231. (214) 373-6300. http://www.americanheart.org.

valvuloplasty

 [val´vu-lo-plas″te]
plastic repair of a valve, especially a valve of the heart.
balloon valvuloplasty dilation of a stenotic cardiac valve by means of a balloon-tipped catheter that is introduced into the valve and inflated.

balloon valvuloplasty

The use of a balloon catheter to overcome narrowing (stenosis) of a heart valve.

valvuloplasty

plastic repair of a valve, especially a valve of the heart.

balloon valvuloplasty
use of an intracardiac catheter with an inflatable balloon to dilate stenotic cardiac valves.
References in periodicals archive ?
Percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty is commonly used to treat patients with aortic and mitral stenosis.
With the worsening of our patient's cardiovascular status despite conservative treatment, we considered the balloon valvuloplasty to be the best option for maternal well-being.
At the meeting, researchers from Asia, South America, Europe and the United States described positive results in trials of balloon valvuloplasty in dozens of adults.
Exhibit 1-16: Percutaneous Balloon Valvuloplasty, Procedure Volumes Forecast, 2013-2019
Advances in diagnosis and risk stratification, progress in percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty, surgical options including closed or open valvotomy and valve replacement have led to improved outcomes of patients with valvular heart disease in the past 5 decades (1).
There she was started on esmolol and furosemide intravenous infusions, was discharged on day 9, and returned 2 months later for mitral balloon valvuloplasty without further incidence.
Surgeons performed a balloon valvuloplasty on tiny Rosey, passing a catheter with a balloon attached through the main artery in the groin up to her heart to stretch open the valve.
Soffer's areas of expertise include percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with cryptogenic stroke, atrial septal defect (ASD) closure, and percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty of the aortic and mitral valves.
The calcified left coronary cusp partially obstructed the left main coronary ostium during the aortic balloon valvuloplasty without hemodynamic compromise (Fig.
To our knowledge, the oldest patient ever reported to undergo balloon valvuloplasty for congenital PS was 76 years old (1-5).
com ) announced today that it has received CE mark for its TRUE Dilatation[TM] Balloon Valvuloplasty Catheter.