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In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, French clinicians, German physiologists, and, later, British bacteriologists bad clear notions of their own claims to reliable science.
When bacteriologist Almroth Wright claimed a successful vaccine for typhoid, based on an "opsonic index" of blood antibodies, Greenwood showed in 1908 that the frequency distributions were skewed.
In these the early days, the numbers of bacteriologists were few and programmes were based on an apprentice-style training programme spread over five-years.
Shortly after the formation of the Association of Bacteriologists in 1945 there was a long overdue review of training and education for the profession.
Nevertheless, although diagnostic virology was not yet available, bacteriology was flourishing and many careful postmortem examinations of patients by academic bacteriologists and pathologists disclosed bacterial pathogens in the lungs (4) However, this was a time when bacterial superinfection in other virus diseases could lead to death; for example, measles in military recruits was often fatal (4).
Parasitologists, virologists, and bacteriologists should agree on a consensus set of terms for the ecologic description of multihost systems.