toxin

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Related to bacterial toxins: Exotoxins

toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

tox·in

(tok'sin),
A noxious or poisonous substance that is formed or elaborated either as an integral part of the cell or tissue (endotoxin), as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination of the two, during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin

/tox·in/ (tok´sin) a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by some higher plants, certain animals, and pathogenic bacteria, that is highly poisonous for other living organisms.
bacterial toxins  toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, and toxic enzymes.
botulinal toxin , botulinum toxin, botulinus toxin an exotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum that produces paralysis by blocking the release of acetylcholine in the central nervous system; there are seven immunologically distinct types (A–G). Type A is used therapeutically to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, as well as to treat wrinkles of the upper face; type B is used to treat cervical dystonia.
clostridial toxin  one produced by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulinus, gas gangrene, and tetanus.
diphtheria toxin  a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheritic infection; it is an enzyme that inhibits protein synthesis.
erythrogenic toxin  streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin.
extracellular toxin  exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin  an exotoxin produced by Clostridium perfringens that causes gas gangrene; at least 10 types have been identified.
intracellular toxin  endotoxin.
tetanus toxin  the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin) .

toxin

(tŏk′sĭn)
n.
1. A poisonous substance, especially a protein, that is produced by living cells or organisms and is capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues but is often also capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies or antitoxins.
2. A poisonous or harmful nonbiological substance, such as a pollutant.

toxin

[tok′sin]
a poison, usually one produced by or occurring in a plant or microorganism. See also endotoxin, exotoxin.

toxin

A poison or noxious thing produced by animals, plants, or bacteria. See Amatoxin, Anaphylatoxin, Bacterial toxin, Batrachotoxin, Biotoxin, Botulinum toxin, Bungarotoxin, Coley's toxin, Endotoxin, Exotoxin, Heat-stable toxin, Immunotoxin, Lethal toxin, Middle molecule toxin, Neurotoxin, Phallotoxin, Picrotoxin, Recombinant toxin, Rhizotoxin, Shiga neurotoxin, Tetanospasmin.

tox·in

(tok'sin)
1. A noxious or poisonous substance that is formed or elaborated as an integral part of the cell or tissue, as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination of the two during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
2. A common misnomer for poison.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin

Any substance produced by a living organism that is poisonous to other organisms. Bacterial disease is largely the result of poisoning by the toxins they produce. Some bacteria release soluble exotoxins that act remotely. Others produce only endotoxins which operate only locally. Some bacterial toxins are among the most poisonous substances known.

toxin

a nonenzymic metabolite of one organism which is injurious to another organism. see TETANUS, BOTULISM.

Toxin

A poison. In the case of scarlet fever, the toxin is secreted as a byproduct of the growth of the streptococcus bacteria and causes a rash.

toxin

noxious/poisonous substance within a cell (endotoxin) or an extracellular product (exotoxin)
  • botulinum toxin; Botox potent neurotoxin (from Clostridium botulinum ) causing muscle paralysis; used therapeutically to ease muscle contracture, e.g. subsequent to upper motor neurone lesions

  • tetanus toxin potent neurotoxin from Clostridium tetani ; causes characteristic rigid muscle paralysis of tetanus

toxin,

n poisonous material that is synthesized or derived from an animal, mineral, or plant.

tox·in

(tok'sin)
Noxious or poisonous substance formed or elaborated either as an integral part of the cell or tissue (endotoxin), as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination, during metabolism and growth of some microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin (tok´sin),

n a poisonous protein made by specific animals, higher levels of plants, and disease-causing bacteria.

toxin

a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, some higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Antigenic toxins, produced by bacteria or helminths, stimulate production of antitoxins. Exotoxins are produced by bacteria and diffuse into surroundings, e.g. tetanus toxin, or can be ingested preformed, e.g. botulinum toxin. Endotoxins are released into the surrounding tissue only when the bacteria break down. They are lipopolysaccharides and form part of the cell wall, e.g. coliform endotoxins. Metabolic toxins, e.g. toxic amines absorbed from damaged intestine, ketones, lactic acid from carbohydrate engorgement, ammonia in liver damage, creatinine in renal dysfunction. See also metabolic toxins.

dermonecrotic toxin
an exotoxin produced by certain bacteria that causes extensive local necrosis on intradermal inoculation.
extracellular toxin
exotoxin.
intracellular toxin
endotoxin.
tetanus toxin
the potent neurotoxic exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani. Called also tetanospasmin.
References in periodicals archive ?
Torres says his research is making clearer that multiple bacterial toxins, such as the five known to be contained in community-acquired MRSA, react very differently on their own than when combined -- because they can counteract each other.
This is a very sophisticated and smart way for bacterial toxins to function.
Any blepharitis should be treated, as this will reduce the amount of bacterial toxins present.
Host-pathogen interactions encountered in Gram-negative organisms at close interface with eukaryotic cells have been recently linked with the bacterial type HI secretion system (T3SS) and OMV-associated export of bacterial toxins (30-32).
This book is not a compendium of bacterial toxins and virulence factors but rather a selection of molecular mechanisms of host-parasite interaction.
Medina's semi-automated method will be able to detect several bacterial toxins in a single food sample.
Other CRD products are being developed that promote viral clearance and the elimination of bacterial toxins.
Plant-made vaccines are especially beneficial because plants are free of human diseases, reducing the cost to screen for viruses and bacterial toxins.
Schwartz is examining the genes and genomic responses involved in the immune response to bacterial toxins such as endotoxin, which are released into the bloodstream during bacterial infection and can, in themselves, cause a variety of symptoms.
The rupture of the basement membrane and epithelial cell lining is caused by bacterial toxins, inflammatory mediators produced by ruptured lysozymes, and the accumulation of subepithelial fluid and vacuoles, all of which exert pressure on the surface epithelium.
HDL may have a positive effect through its role in immune regulation as it has been shown to bind to bacterial toxins and to relieve inflammation, which may contribute to the prevention of lung-tissue damage.
Bacterial toxins (poisons) flood the bloodstream to overwhelm the immune system and cause septic shock: blood vessels leak, blood pressure drops, and organs fail.