bacterial endocarditis


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Acronyms, Encyclopedia.
Related to bacterial endocarditis: subacute bacterial endocarditis

bac·te·ri·al en·do·car·di·tis

endocarditis caused by the direct invasion of bacteria and leading to deformity and destruction of the valve leaflets. Two types are acute bacterial endocarditis and subacute bacterial endocarditis.

bacterial endocarditis

an acute or subacute bacterial infection of the endocardium or the heart valves or both. The condition is characterized by heart murmur, prolonged fever, bacteremia, splenomegaly, and embolic phenomena. The acute variety progresses rapidly and is usually caused by staphylococci. The subacute variety is usually caused by lodging of Streptococcus viridans in heart valves damaged by rheumatic fever. Prompt treatment of both types with antibiotics, such as penicillin, cephalosporin, or gentamicin given intravenously, is essential to prevent destruction of the valves and cardiac failure. See also endocarditis, subacute bacterial endocarditis.
enlarge picture
Bacterial endocarditis

bac·te·ri·al en·do·car·di·tis

(bak-tēr'ē-ăl en'dō-kahr-dī'tis)
Condition caused by the direct invasion of bacteria and leading to deformity and destruction of the valve leaflets. Two types are acute bacterial endocarditis and subacute bacterial endocarditis.

bacterial endocarditis

See INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS.

endocarditis

inflammation of heart lining
  • bacterial endocarditis blood-borne bacterial colonization of heart lining, with inflammation, fibrosis, deformity and roughening of heart valve leaflets; damaged valves are prone to subsequent bacterial colonization (with distant infection by dissemination of infected thrombi) or clot formation (and myocardial infarct or cerebrovascular accident); it is recommended that subjects with damaged heart valves (e.g. with history of rheumatic fever) undergo all surgical procedures under prophylactic antibiotic cover (e.g. adult 3 g oral amoxicillin 1 hour prior to procedure, or 600 mg oral clindamycin if patient is penicillin-sensitive or had received oral penicillin within the preceding month)

  • acute bacterial endocarditis endocarditis due to infection with haemolytic streptococci or staphylococci

  • subacute bacterial endocarditis endocarditis usually due to infection with Streptococcus viridans or Staphylococcus faecalis

bacterial endocarditis (bak·tēˑ·rē·l enˈ·dō·kar·dīˑ·tis),

n bacterial infection in the heart valves, the endocardium, or both. May be acute or subacute. Symptoms can include heart murmur, embolic phenomena, splenomegaly, bacteremia, extended fever, and heart failure.
Enlarge picture
Bacterial endocarditis.

bac·te·ri·al en·do·car·di·tis

(bak-tēr'ē-ăl en'dō-kahr-dī'tis)
Condition caused by the direct invasion of bacteria and leading to deformity and destruction of the valve leaflets.

endocarditis

exudative and proliferative inflammatory alterations of the endocardium, characterized by the presence of vegetations on the surface of the endocardium or in the endocardium itself, and most commonly involving a heart valve, but also affecting the inner lining of the cardiac chambers or the endocardium elsewhere.
Lesions on the valves may interfere with the ejection of blood from the heart by causing insufficiency or stenosis of the valves. Murmurs associated with the heart sounds are the major manifestation and if interference with the blood flow is sufficiently severe congestive heart failure develops. The further hazard with endocarditis, especially if it is bacterial in origin, is that of septic emboli in the lungs or in the other organs.

bacterial endocarditis
infectious endocarditis, acute or subacute, caused by various bacteria, including streptococci, staphylococci, enterococci and gram-negative bacilli. Of particular interest in animals is the predilection of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae to cause endocarditis, epecially in pigs.
ductal endocarditis
due to thrombosis in a persistent ductus arteriosus with resulting mural inflammation.
infectious endocarditis, infective endocarditis
that due to infection with microorganisms, especially bacteria and fungi.
mural endocarditis
that affecting the lining of the walls of the heart chambers only.
nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis
that in which the vegetations, single or multiple, consist of fibrin and other blood elements.
parietal endocarditis
mural endocarditis.
tuberculous endocarditis
that resulting from extension of a tuberculous infection from the pericardium and myocardium.
valvular endocarditis
that affecting the membrane over the heart valves only.
vegetative endocarditis
endocarditis, infectious or noninfectious, the characteristic lesions of which are vegetations or verrucae on the endocardium. Called also verrucous endocarditis.
References in periodicals archive ?
D'Cruz, "A case of mistaken identity: sub-acute bacterial endocarditis associated with p-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody," BMJ Case Reports, 2010.
Viridans streptococcal (Streptococcus intermedius) mitral valve subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE) in a patient with mitral valve prolapse after a dental procedure: The importance of antibiotic prophylaxis.
It is reasonable to consider antibiotic prophylaxis against bacterial endocarditis before vaginal delivery, with rupture of the amniotic sac, in the case of patients at high risk like those who have mechanical cardiac valves, cyanotic congenital heart disease without correction, or those corrected with shunts (class IIA, C level of evidence) (20).
The American Heart Association has made a link between bacterial endocarditis and dental surgery, along with other common procedures like tonsillectomy and gall bladder surgery.
However, as antibiotic therapy has evolved, the incidence of bacterial endocarditis has diminished, with a concomitant change in the microbiology of these vascular infections.
Tooth brushing with a powered toothbrush is more likely to result in a transient bacteraemia than brushing with either a conventional toothbrush or an ultrasonic toohbrush which might have implications for susceptible individuals with congenital heart defects at risk of bacterial endocarditis.
In cases of fever of unknown origin and subacute bacterial endocarditis, obtain three blood cultures during the first one to two hours.
3) Other biofilm-induced disease states include dental plaque and caries, catheter sepsis, bacterial endocarditis, and cystic fibrosis pneumonia.
The patient was given antibiotics for bacterial endocarditis, but all cultures were shown to be negative for infection.
Atypical presentation of papillary fibroelastoma mimicking multiple vegetations in suspected subacute bacterial endocarditis.
Steroid abusers who share needles or use non-sterile techniques for injecting steroids are at risk for contracting infections such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, and bacterial endocarditis.