A process to determine the onset of exhalation during the forced expiratory vital capacity maneuver; excessive back extrapolation volume (usually expressed as a percentage of the forced vital capacity) is an indication of hesitation or false starting.
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These studies used back-extrapolation, historically available large-size particle data, or physical or chemical models complemented by visibility, emission, meteorology, and satellite data (Beelen et al.
The other expert, an environmental consultant, used subtraction methodology and back-extrapolation methodology.
3%, based on back-extrapolation (using the half lives of COHb in 100% oxygen and in room air conditions), the patient's estimated COHb probably exceeded 40% at the end of her exposure, which is consistent with her reported symptoms.