Neuman

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Neuman

 [noo´man]
Betty. Nursing educator and developer of Neuman's systems model for nursing. Her conceptual model was first presented in a 1972 article entitled A Model for Teaching Total Person Approach to Patient Problems and has since been further refined.

Neuman, Betty

a nursing theorist who developed the Neuman Systems Model, first published in 1972. Her model is influenced by Gestalt theory, which states that the homeostatic process is the process by which an organism maintains its equilibrium. Major concepts include total persons approach, holism, open system, lines of resistance and defense, degree of reaction, interventions, levels of prevention, and reconstitution. A spiritual variable was added to her model later, and created-environment was added to the typology. In the Neuman Systems Model, the client is presented as a whole person, an open system in constant change and in reciprocal interaction with the environment. Neuman believes the nurse should use purposeful interventions and a total-person approach to client care to help individuals, families, and groups reach and maintain a maximum level of total wellness. Nursing intervention is aimed at the reduction of stress and adverse conditions that can affect optimal client functions.