axonal degeneration


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ax·o·nal de·gen·er·a·tion

a type of peripheral nerve fiber response to insult, wherein axon death and subsequent breakdown occur, with secondary breakdown of the myelin sheath associated; caused by focal injury to peripheral nerve fibers; often referred to as wallerian degeneration.
Synonym(s): axon degeneration

axonal

pertaining to or arising from an axon.

axonal degeneration
an axon dies and cannot be replaced if its cell body is destroyed. A damaged axon in the central nervous system similarly cannot undergo regeneration, but a peripheral nerve with an intact nerve cell can regenerate. See also wallerian degeneration.
axonal dystrophy
specific diseases characterized by nutritional abnormalities of axons include in sheep, Suffolk, Coopworth, Merino axonal dystrophies, in dogs, Rottweiler, Chiahuahua dystrophies, in horses Haflinger, Morgan, in cats a dystrophy in lilac coat color domestic shorthaired.
giant axonal neuropathy
see giant axonal neuropathy.
axonal migration
the movement of axoplasm from the proximal segment of a severed nerve fiber to the distal portion, following Schwann cell extensions, in the process of peripheral nerve regeneration.
axonal reaction
central chromatolysis of the axon characterized by eccentric relocation of the nucleus, greater prominence of the nucleolus and a basophilic cap of RNA on its cytoplasmic aspect, dispersal of the Nissl substance to the periphery of the cell, and an increase in the number of neurofilaments.
References in periodicals archive ?
Optic nerve hydropic axonal degeneration and block retrograde axoplasmic transport.
In this case axonal degeneration was observed, with low likelihood of significant recovery.
Instead a previously unrecognized mechanism, termed focal axonal degeneration (FAD), is responsible for the primary damage.
Radial diffusivity (perpendicular to tracts) appears to be modulated by myelin in white matter, whereas axial diffusivity (parallel to tracts) is more specific to axonal degeneration.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is under evaluation as an outcome measure of axonal degeneration for use in clinical trials and practice [6].
1) Apprehension regarding the use of stereotactic irradiation for these tumors is fueled by legitimate concerns that radiation can induce microvasculitis and axonal degeneration in target neural tissue?
The EMG study confirmed the diagnosis of bilateral partial axonal degeneration of the CPNP.
There is now considerable evidence that axonal damage begins at disease onset, that it is related to the inflammatory demyelinating processes, and that irreversible cumulative axonal degeneration is the main determinant of progressive neurological disability in patients with MS (75).
They cover neuronal death and neuroprotection, the use of propidium iodide to assess excitotoxic neuronal death in primary mixed cortical cultures, a modified silver technique for assessment of neuronal and axonal degeneration, a model of acute injury to study neuroprotection, a tool to study the molecular and cellular regulation of axonal regeneration and collateral sprouting in vitro, the role of Nrf2-dependent ARE-driven antioxident pathways in neuroprotection, biochemical methods to assess the coupling of brain energy metabolism in control and disease states, functioning cloning of genes regulating apoptosis in neuronal cells, intracerebral infusion, cell-penetrating peptides, and stem cells as a potential treatment.
2005) interpreted that the rapid recovery of brain MRI changes may be due to a transient demyelination, axonal degeneration, or neuronal damages.