Radiotherapy is recommended to the supraclavicular fossa alone if more than four axillary nodes
are involved following an axillary clearance (Figures 1 and 2).
Chapter 3: Treatment of Stage III Melanoma with Micrometastatic Axillary Nodes
The removal of such a large number of axillary nodes
helped to eliminate false-negative findings, allowing for a more accurate analysis of therapy results," noted Rosner.
Indications for post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) include patients with T3, T4 tumours and those with [greater than or equal to] 4 positive axillary nodes
Until recently, clinical practice guidelines advised complete axillary node
dissection--removal of all 20-30 axillary nodes
--if a woman's sentinel node biopsy was positive.
Because of their proximity to the breast, the presence of cancer cells in the axillary nodes
often indicate that breast cancer has begun to spread.
Postsurgical radiotherapy of the chest wall and regional axillary nodes
should follow completion of the chemotherapy regimens.
The median number of sentinel nodes removed was two, and the median number of axillary nodes
Malignancy such as lymphoma rarely presents as isolated unilateral axillary nodes
,23 although melanoma, sarcoma and other metastatic malignancy may also present in this way.
For in vitro micropropagation, three types of explants were tested: cotyledonary nodes, axillary nodes
and terminal apex.
Estrogen and progesterone status was positive in the axillary nodes
Current morphology-based tools for ALN staging include clinical examination, axillary ultrasound and breast MRI, but none are accurate enough to replace the need for pathologic evaluation of the axillary nodes