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plane

 [plān]
1. a flat surface determined by the position of three points in space.
2. an imaginary flat surface that divides the body into sections (see accompanying figure). adj., adj pla´nar.
3. a specified level, as the plane of anesthesia.
4. to rub away or abrade; see also planing and plastic surgery.
5. a superficial incision in the wall of a cavity or between tissue layers, especially in plastic surgery, made so that the precise point of entry into the cavity or between the layers can be determined.
Planes of section. Transverse, sagittal, and frontal planes of the body. From Applegate, 2000.
coronal p's frontal p's.
datum plane a given horizontal plane from which craniometric measurements are made.
frontal p's those planes passing longitudinally through the body, an organ, or a part, at right angles to the median plane and dividing into front and back portions. Called also coronal planes.
horizontal plane transverse plane.
median plane one passing longitudinally through the body, an organ, or a part from front to back, dividing it into right and left halves.
sagittal p's vertical planes through the body parallel to the median plane or the sagittal suture, dividing the body into unequal left and right portions.
transverse plane one passing horizontally through the body, an organ, or a part at right angles to the median and frontal planes, dividing it into upper and lower portions. Called also horizontal plane.
vertical plane one perpendicular to a horizontal plane, such as a sagittal plane, median plane, or frontal plane.

plane

(plān), [TA]
1. A two-dimensional flat surface.
2. An imaginary surface formed by extension of a point through any axis or two definite points, in reference especially to craniometry and to pelvimetry.
Synonym(s): planum
[L. planus, flat]

plane

(plān)
1. a flat surface determined by the position of three points in space.
2. a specified level, as the plane of anesthesia.
3. to rub away or abrade; see planing.
4. a superficial incision in the wall of a cavity or between tissue layers, especially in plastic surgery, made so that the precise point of entry into the cavity or between the layers can be determined.
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Planes of the body, with subject in the anatomical position.
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Planes of the trunk.

axial plane  one parallel with the long axis of a structure.
base plane  an imaginary plane upon which is estimated the retention of an artificial denture.
coronal planes  frontal p's.
Frankfort horizontal plane  a horizontal plane represented in profile by a line between the lowest point on the margin of the orbit and the highest point on the margin of the auditory meatus.
frontal planes  those passing longitudinally through the body from side to side, at right angles to the median plane, dividing the body into front and back parts.
horizontal plane 
1. one passing through the body, at right angles to both the frontal and median planes, dividing the body into upper and lower parts.
2. one passing through a tooth at right angles to its long axis.
median plane  one passing longitudinally through the middle of the body from front to back, dividing it into right and left halves.
nuchal plane  the outer surface of the occipital bone between the foramen magnum and the superior nuchal line.
occipital plane  the outer surface of the occipital bone above the superior nuchal line.
orbital plane 
1. the orbital surface of the maxilla.
sagittal planes  vertical planes passing through the body parallel to the median plane (or to the sagittal suture), dividing the body into left and right portions.
temporal plane  the depressed area on the side of the skull below the inferior temporal line.
transverse plane  one passing horizontally through the body, at right angles to the sagittal and frontal planes, and dividing the body into upper and lower portions.
vertical plane  one perpendicular to a horizontal plane, dividing the body into left and right, or front and back portions.
visual plane  one passing through the visual axes of the two eyes.

plane

Etymology: L, planum, level
1 n, a flat surface determined by three points in space.
2 n, an extension of a longitudinal section through an axis, such as the coronal, horizontal, transverse, frontal, and sagittal planes, used to identify the position of various parts of the body in the study of anatomy.
3 v, the act of paring or of rubbing away.
4 n, a superficial incision in the wall of a cavity or between tissue layers, especially in plastic surgery. planar, adj.

plane

(plān) [TA]
1. A flat surface.
See also: planum
2. An imaginary surface formed by extension through any axis or two definite points, in reference to pelvimetry and especially to craniometry.
[L. planus, flat]

plane

(plan) [L. planum, flat surface]
1. A flat or relatively smooth surface.
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BODY PLANES
2. A flat surface formed by making a cut, imaginary or real, through the body or a part of it. Planes are used as points of reference by which positions of parts of the body are indicated. In the human subject, all planes are based on the body being in an upright anatomical position. See: illustration; anatomical position
3. A certain stage, as in levels of anesthesia.
4. To smooth a surface or rub away.

Addison plane

See: Addison plane

alveolocondylar plane

A plane tangent to the alveolar point with most prominent points on lower aspects of condyles of the occipital bone.

axiolabiolingual plane

A plane that passes through an incisor or canine tooth parallel to the long axis of the tooth and in a labiolingual direction.

axiomesiodistal plane

A plane that passes through a tooth parallel to the axis and in a mesiodistal direction.

Baer's plane

See: Baer's plane

bite plane

A plane formed by the biting surfaces of the teeth.

coccygeal plane

The fourth parallel plane of the pelvis.

coronal plane

A vertical plane at right angles to a sagittal plane. It divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Synonym: frontal plane

datum plane

An assumed horizontal plane from which craniometric measurements are taken.

Daubenton's plane

See: Daubenton's plane

focal plane

One of two planes through the anterior and posterior principal foci of a dioptric system and perpendicular to the line connecting the two.

Frankfort horizontal plane

See: Frankfort horizontal plane

frontal plane

Coronal plane.

Hodge's plane

See: Hodge, Hugh Lennox

horizontal plane

A transverse plane at right angles to the vertical axis of the body.

inclined planes of the pelvis

Anterior and posterior inclined planes of the pelvic cavity, two unequal sections divided by the sciatic spines. In the larger, anterior section, the lateral walls slope toward the symphysis and arch of the pubes; the posterior walls slope in the direction of the sacrum and coccyx. The anterior inclined planes are the declivities over which rotation of the occiput takes place in the mechanism of normal labor.

inclined plane of a tooth

Any sloping surface of the cusp of a tooth.

intertubercular plane

A horizontal plane passing through the tubercles of the crests of the ilia; lies approx. at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra.

Listing's plane

See: Listing's plane

median plane

A vertical plane through the trunk and head dividing the body into right and left halves. Synonym: midsagittal plane
See: plane for illus.

midsagittal plane

Median plane.

Morton's plane

See: Morton's plane

occlusal plane

An imaginary plane extending from the incisal edge of the incisors along the tips of the cusps of the posterior teeth to contact the cranium. Although not a true plane, it represents the mean of the curvature of the occlusal surface.

parallel planes of the pelvis

The planes intersecting the axis of the pelvic canal at right angles. The first plane is that of the superior strait; the second that extending from the middle of the sacral vertebra to the level of the subpubic ligament. The third plane is at the level of the spines of the ischia, and the fourth plane is at the outlet.

planes of the pelvis

Imaginary planes touching the same parts of the pelvic canal on both sides.

plane of refraction

A plane passing through a refracted ray of light and drawn perpendicular to the surface at which refraction takes place.

plane of regard

A plane through the fovea of the eye; fixation point.

sagittal plane

A vertical plane through the longitudinal axis of the body or part of the body, dividing it into right and left parts. If it is through the anteroposterior midaxis and divides the body into right and left halves, it is called a median or midsagittal plane.

subcostal plane

A horizontal plane passing through the lowest points of the 10th costal cartilages. It lies approx. at the level of the third lumbar vertebra.

transverse plane

A plane that divides the body into a top and bottom portion.

treatment plane

A plane in the concave joint surface that defines the direction of joint mobilization techniques. The plane is perpendicular to a line drawn from the axis of rotation in the convex joint surface to the center of the concave surface. Joint distraction techniques are applied perpendicular to, and gliding techniques parallel to, the treatment plane.

vertical plane

Any body plane perpendicular to a horizontal plane.

visual plane

A plane passing the visual axis of the eye.

cardinal planes of the body

frontal (coronal), sagittal (median) and horizontal (transverse) planes of the body, each of which is oriented on the three planes of space
  • coronal/frontal plane plane equally dividing anterior and posterior aspects; it lies at right angles to sagittal and horizontal planes

  • horizontal/transverse plane plane parallel to the ground or horizontal surface; equally dividing superior and inferior areas; it lies at right angles to both sagittal and frontal planes

  • sagittal/median plane plane equally dividing left and right sides; it lies at right angles to both transverse and frontal planes

plane,

n any imaginary two dimensional surface.
plane, coronal,
n See frontal plane.
plane, frontal,
n imaginary plane passing through the body longitudinally, from side to side, dividing the body into two halves front and back, or anterior and posterior.

plane 

A flat surface.
aperture plane A plane that passes through the aperture of an optical system.
apparent frontoparallel plane (AFPP) Plane passing through the fixation point and containing all other points judged to appear in the same frontal plane. At about 1 metre from the eye it more or less coincides with a frontal plane; this is the abathic distance. Closer to 1 metre it is often a concave surface with its concavity turned towards the observer and beyond 1 metre it is a convex surface with its convexity turned towards the observer. See Hering-Hillebrand deviation; horopter.
cardinal plane's Planes, normal to the optical axis, which pass through the cardinal points of a lens or optical system. They are the focal planes, the nodal planes and the principal planes. (Sometimes, this definition also includes the object and image planes.) See cardinal points.
equatorial plane Vertical plane passing through the centre of curvature of the large circle of the eyeball, perpendicular to the optical axis and which divides the eyeball into anterior and posterior halves. See anterior segment of the eye; Listing's plane.
plane of fixation See plane of regard.
focal plane A plane, perpendicular to the optical axis, which passes through one of the focal points of an optical system. See principal focus.
frontal plane A vertical plane perpendicular to the median plane. When this plane passes through the centre of rotation of the eye it is called Listing's plane.
frontoparallel plane The frontal plane passing through the fixation point.
horizontal plane of the eye Plane, such as the xy plane, passing through the centre of rotation of the eye and dividing it into superior and inferior halves. When the eye is looking straight ahead this plane is horizontal. See subjective horizontal plane; xy plane.
image plane A plane, perpendicular to the optical axis at any axial image point of an optical system.
plane of incidence The plane containing the incident and reflected rays, and the normal to the surface at the point of incidence.
Listing's plane A frontal plane passing through the centre of rotation, which corresponds to the equatorial plane of the eye when it is looking in the straight-ahead position (Fig. P11).
median plane The vertical plane that divides the head into right and left halves.
plane mirror See plane mirror.
nodal plane A plane, perpendicular to the optical axis, which passes through one of the nodal points of an optical system (Fig. P12).
object plane A plane perpendicular to the optical axis at any axial object point of an optical system.
principal plane A plane perpendicular to the optical axis of an optical system at the point where the incident rays parallel to the optical axis intersect the refracted rays converging to the secondary focal point (secondary principal plane); or in which the refracted rays parallel to the optical axis intersect the incident rays coming from the primary focal point (primary principal plane). Each plane is an erect image of the other, and of the same size. For this reason they are sometimes also referred to as unit planes as they are conjugate planes in which the magnification is +1. In a thin lens these planes coincide at the lens (Fig. P12). See image distance; object distance; focal length; thin lens; nodal points; principal points; equivalent power.
plane of regard Plane containing the fixation point, the axes of fixation from the two eyes and the base line. Syn. plane of fixation.
sagittal plane A vertical plane parallel to the median plane as, for example, the yz plane.
spectacle plane A plane representing the orientation of the spectacle lenses relative to the eyes and passing through the posterior vertices of the two lenses. See pantoscopic angle; retroscopic angle; vertex distance.
subjective horizontal plane Plane fixed with respect to the eye, i.e. horizontal when the eye is in the primary position. See horizontal plane of the eye; primary position.
unit plane's See principal plane.
plane of vibration See polarized light.
visual plane The plane containing the two visual axes.
xy plane Horizontal plane of the eye containing both the x- and y-axes (Fig. P11). See anteroposterior axis; transverse axis.
yz plane Vertical plane of the eye containing both the y- and z-axes (Fig. P11). See anteroposterior axis; vertical axis.
Fig. P11 Listings plane and the axes of Fickenlarge picture
Fig. P11 Listing's plane and the axes of Fick
Fig. P12 Primary and secondary principal planes HP and H′P′ of a thick lens in air (PF, anterior focal length; P′F′, posterior focal length; SF, front vertex focal length; S′F′, back vertex focal length; SF′ 1 , back focal length of the first surface D 1 ; S′F 2 , front focal length of the second surface D 2 ; N and N′, nodal points)enlarge picture
Fig. P12 Primary and secondary principal planes HP and H′P′ of a thick lens in air (PF, anterior focal length; P′F′, posterior focal length; SF, front vertex focal length; S′F′, back vertex focal length; SF′1, back focal length of the first surface D1; S′F2, front focal length of the second surface D2; N and N′, nodal points)

plane

(plān) [TA]
1. Two-dimensional flat surface.
2. Imaginary surface formed by extension of a point through any axis or two definite points, in reference especially to craniometry and to pelvimetry.
[L. planus, flat]

plane,

n an ideal flat surface that intersects solid bodies, extends uniformly in various directions (horizontally, vertically, laterally, or any relative combination thereof), and is determined by the position in space of three points.
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Body in anatomic position with median, sagittal, horizontal, and frontal planes noted.
plane, axial,
n a hypothetical plane parallel to the long axis of an object.
plane, axial, of teeth,
n a term that applies to the mesiodistal or the buccolingual plane.
plane, axial wall,
n an instrument used to plane and true the axial wall of a Class 3 preparation.
plane, axiobuccolingual, of teeth,
n See plane of teeth, buccolingual.
plane, axiomesiodistal, of teeth,
n See plane of teeth, mesiodistal.
plane, bite,
n an appliance that covers the palate. It has an inclined or flat plane at its anterior border that offers resistance to the mandibular incisors when they come into contact with it. Also called
bite plate.
plane, Bolton-nasion,
n.pr imaginary surface passing through the nasion and the postcondylar notch, used in cephalometric analysis. See also point, Bolton.
plane, Broca's
n.pr a plane extending from the tip of the interalveolar septum between the upper central incisors to the inferiormost point of the occipital condyle.
plane, brushing,
n the top uniform edge of the bristles on the head of a toothbrush; forms the surface that comes in contact with teeth and gingival margin when brushing. The plane comes in a variety of designs that assist the user to remove plaque and clean the gingiva. Also called
trim.
plane, buccolingual, of teeth,
n a plane that passes through the tooth buccolingually parallel with its long axis. In incisors and canines, this is the labiolingual plane. Also called
axiobuccolingual plane.
plane, Camper's,
n.pr a plane extending from the inferior border of the ala of the nose to the superior border of the tragus of the ear.
plane, coronal,
n the plane created by an imaginary line that divides the body at any level into anterior and posterior portions. Also called the
frontal plane.
plane, eye-ear,
n See plane, Frankfort horizontal.
plane, flush terminal,
n a relationship between primary teeth in which the buccal surfaces of the opposing second molars are aligned when occlusion is centric.
plane, Frankfort horizontal,
n.pr a craniometric plane determined by the inferior borders of the bony orbits and the upper margin of the auditory meatus. It passes through the two orbitales and the two tragions.
plane, frontal,
n the frontal plane, in anatomy, is an imaginary plane that divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) halves along the longitudinal (left-right) axis.
plane, guide,
n 1. a mechanical device, part of an orthodontic appliance, having an established inclined plane that, when in use, causes a change in the occlusal relation of the maxillary and mandibular teeth and permits their movement to a normal position.
n 2. a plane developed in the occlusal surfaces of occlusion rims to position the mandible in centric relation.
n 3. two or more vertically parallel surfaces of abutment teeth shaped to direct the path of planement and removal of a remarkable partial denture. Also called
guiding plane.
plane, guiding,
n See plane, guide.
plane, Hamy's,
n.pr a plane extending from the glabella to the lambda.
plane, His's,
n.pr a plane extending from the anterior nasal spine to the opisthion.
plane, horizontal,
n the plane created by an imaginary line that divides the body at any level into superior and inferior portions.
plane, horizontal, of teeth,
n a plane that is perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth and may be supposed to cut through the crown at any point in its length.
plane, Huxley's,
n.pr a plane extending from the nasion to the basion. Also called the
basicranial axis.
plane, mandibular,
plane, Martin's,
n.pr a plane extending from the nasion to the inion.
plane, mean foundation,
n the mean of the inclination of the denture-supporting (basal seat) tissues. The tissues constituting the denture foundation are irregular in form and consistency, and force may be applied from only one direction if it is to comply with the law of statics, which requires the exertion of force at a right angle to maintain support. Therefore the mean foundation plane forms a right angle with the most favorable direction of force. The ideal condition for denture stability exists when the mean foundation plane is almost at a right angle to the direction of force.
plane, mean occlusal,
n the flat or horizontal plane or position and area between the cutting edge of the teeth.
plane, median,
n See plane, midsagittal.
plane, median sagittal,
n a plane passing through the median raphe of the palate at right angles to the Frankfort horizontal plane.
plane, median-raphe
n the median plane of the head.
plane, mesiodistal, of teeth,
n a plane that passes through the tooth mesiodistally parallel with its long axis. Also called
axiomesiodistal plane.
plane, midsagittal
n the plane created by an imaginary line dividing the body into right and left halves. Also called the
median plane.
plane, Montague's
n.pr the plane extending from the nasion to the porion.
plane, occlusal,
n 1. an imaginary surface that is related anatomically to the cranium and that theoretically touches the incisal edges of the incisors and tips of the occluding surfaces of the posterior teeth. It is not a plane in the true sense of the word but represents the mean of the curvature of the surface.
n 2. a line drawn between points representing one half of the incisal overbite (vertical overlap) in front and one half of the cusp height of the last molars in back. See also curve of occlusion.
plane of reference,
n a plane that acts as a guide to the location of other planes.
plane of teeth,
n for descriptive purposes, three planes are considered in the teeth proper: buccolingual, horizontal, and mesiodistal.
plane, orbital,
n 1. a plane perpendicular to the eye-ear plane and passing through the orbitale.
n 2. the plane that passes through the visual axis of each eye.
plane, sagittal,
n a plane of the body created by an imaginary plane parallel to the median plane.
plane, Schwalbe's
n.pr a plane that extends from the glabella to the inion.
plane, straight terminal,
n See plane, flush terminal.
plane, vertical, of teeth,
n an upright plane that is perpendicular to the horizon.
plane, von Ihring's
n.pr a plane extending from the orbitale to the center of the bony external auditory meatus.

plane

1. a flat surface determined by the position of three points in space.
2. a specified level, as the plane of anesthesia.
3. to rub away or abrade. See also planing and plastic surgery.
4. a superficial incision in the wall of a cavity or between tissue layers, especially in plastic surgery, made so that the precise point of entry into the cavity or between the layers can be determined.

coronal plane
frontal plane, an ambiguous term when applied to quadrupeds and bipeds.
dorsal plane
any plane passing longitudinally through the body from side to side, at right angles to the median plane and dividing the body into dorsal and ventral parts. Called also coronal plane, frontal plane.
horizontal plane
one passing through the body at right angles to the median plane, and dividing the body into upper and lower parts.
inclined plane
an intraoral acrylic or metal appliance used in orthodontics to guide a tooth into a new position by using pressure applied when the mouth is closed normally. Commonest use is to move canines laterally.
median plane
one passing longitudinally through the body from front to back and dividing it into right and left halves.
nasal plane
the space between the nostrils.
nasolabial plane
the extension of the nasal plane between the nostrils into the upper lip in cattle.
nuchal plane
the flat surface at the back of the occipital bone below the nuchal crest.
rostral plane
the bare area on the dorsum of the snout of the pig.
sagittal plane
a vertical plane through the body parallel to the median plane (or to the sagittal suture) and dividing the body into left and right portions.
transverse plane
one passing through the body, at right angles to the sagittal and dorsal planes, and dividing the body into cranial and caudal portions.
vertical plane
one perpendicular to a horizontal plane, dividing the body into left and right, or front and back portions.