All 15 virulent isolates and 23 randomly selected avirulent
isolates were used for in vitro antimicrobial drug susceptibility testing and genotyping.
Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium that cannot survive within the macrophage are avirulent
Salicylic acid mediated by the oxidative burst is a key molecule in local and systemic responses of cotton challenged by an avirulent
race of Xanthomonas campestris pv malvacearum.
Another study identified 7 aa substitutions in the spike protein of BCoV that differed between virulent and avirulent
, cell culture-adapted strains (31); 5 of the 7 aa from virulent strains were also conserved in DcCoV UAE-HKU23, and amino acid substitutions were observed in the other 2 aa (threonine [right arrow] valine at position 40 and aspartic acid [right arrow] asparagine at position 470).
Soil probably contains a variety of naturally occurring phages active against both avirulent
anthracis (an avirulent
veterinary vaccine strain), B.
In the patient described by Neofytos et al, the organism appears to have been relatively avirulent
, producing little by way of signs or symptoms of infection.
In a separate experiment under the same MB exposure conditions, 10 strains of Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 10, ATCC 937, ATCC 4728, ATCC 9660, ATCC 11966, ATCC 14187, AMES-1-RIID, AMES-RIID, ANR-1, and STERNE) were equally susceptible to MB and were not dependent upon virulence factors; at the described conditions, 80 mg/L of MB reduced to below detection level fully virulent strains containing both plasmids (toxin+, capsule+), attenuated strains containing one of two plasmids (+, -) or (-, +), and avirulent
strains containing neither virulence plasmid (-, -).
Complete genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 91001, an isolate avirulent
Modifications were made, and the US vaccine used today is an alhydrogel-absorbed, cell-free culture filtrate of the anthrax strain V770-NPI-R (an avirulent
, nonencapsulated, nonproteolytic variation of a 1951 bovine isolate from Florida).
Serological grouping of virulent and avirulent
strains of the lobster pathogen Aerococcus viridans.
strains of Salmonella in the gut are known to inhibit the activation of NF-[kappa]B in the epithelial cells by blocking the polyubiquitination of phosphorylated I[kappa]B[alpha] (48).