renal

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renal

 [re´nal]
pertaining to the kidney; called also nephric.
renal clearance tests laboratory tests that determine the ability of the kidney to remove certain substances from the blood. The most commonly used is the creatinine clearance test, which is a measure of the glomerular filtration rate.
renal failure inability of the kidney to maintain normal function, so that waste products and metabolites accumulate in the blood. This affects most of the body's systems because of its important role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating the electrochemical composition of body fluids, providing constant protection against acid-base imbalance, and controlling blood pressure. Called also kidney failure.
Acute renal failure occurs suddenly and may be caused by physical trauma, infection, inflammation, or exposure to nephrotoxic chemicals. Nephrotoxic agents include drugs such as penicillins, sulfonamides, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines; radiographic iodine contrast materials; and heavy metals. These agents inflict damage on the renal tubules, causing tubular necrosis, and may also indirectly harm the tubules by producing severe vasoconstriction of renal blood vessels with ischemia of kidney tissue. Other causes of tubular ischemia include circulatory collapse, severe dehydration, and hypotension in certain compromised surgical patients.



Acute renal failure may be classified as: prerenal, associated with poor systemic perfusion and decreased renal blood flow; intrarenal, associated with renal ischemia or toxins; or postrenal, resulting from the obstruction of urine flow out of the kidneys.

oliguria is the hallmark of tubular necrosis, but it is not always present. Other symptoms besides a marked decrease in urinary output are related to fluid and electrolyte imbalances, anemia, hypertension, and uremia. In addition to supportive measures to restore and maintain a tolerable internal environment during acute renal failure, it may be necessary to remove toxic wastes by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
Chronic renal failure is a progressive loss of kidney function that may eventually progress to end-stage renal disease. The clinical course is described in four stages. First there is decreased renal reserve, with diminishing renal function but without accumulation of the end products of protein metabolism; the patient has no symptoms. In the second stage, renal insufficiency, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is depressed to about 30 ml per minute and plasma chemistry begins to show abnormalities as waste products accumulate. The third stage, frank renal failure, is characterized by steadily rising serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels accompanying a drop in the GFR. The fourth and final stage is uremia; levels of protein end products continue to rise, residual urine function is less than 15 per cent, and all body systems are impaired.



Causes of renal failure are many and can be roughly divided into three groups: (1) those that directly affect the kidney by infection, inflammation, and upper urinary tract obstruction; (2) those in which there is an obstruction of the lower urinary tract; and (3) systemic diseases and toxicities, such as hypercalcemia, hypertension, disseminated lupus erythematosus, atheroma, and diabetes mellitus.
Treatment. The treatment of chronic renal failure is highly complex owing to its impact on systems throughout the body. It involves prevention of imbalances in water and electrolytes whenever possible and correction of these imbalances when they do occur. Therapy may include phosphate binders to prevent absorption of phosphorus from the intestinal tract, antihypertensive agents to control high blood pressure, diuretics to manage hypervolemia, erythropoietin to manage anemia, and cardiac drugs to manage heart failure. Fluids often are restricted to a given amount during each 24-hour period. Dietary restrictions are aimed at minimizing urea toxicity, controlling various metabolic upheavals and providing optimal nutrition. Protein intake is an especially critical factor because the end products of the metabolism of protein and amino acids are excreted for the most part by the kidney.



Symptomatic relief of the many manifestations of end-stage renal disease is a challenge to every member of the health care team. Virtually every system within the body is adversely affected in some way. Pathophysiologic changes involve the gastrointestinal tract, the skin, the cardiovascular system, the lungs, bone, and blood, and the metabolism of glucose and protein.

Hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis may be employed to rid the body of wastes that the kidney can no longer handle. For some patients transplantation of a human kidney is a viable alternative to continuous dialysis. Others who cannot withstand surgery and long-term immunosuppression are not good candidates for a kidney transplant.

neph·ric

(nef'rik),
Relating to the kidney.
Synonym(s): renal

renal

/re·nal/ (re´n'l) pertaining to the kidney.

renal

(rē′nəl)
adj.
Of, relating to, or in the region of the kidneys.

renal

[rē′nəl]
Etymology: L, ren, kidney
pertaining to the kidney.

renal

adjective Referring to one or more kidneys.

paraneoplastic syndrome

Oncology A co-morbid condition due to the indirect–remote or 'biologic' effects of malignancy, which may be the first sign of a neoplasm or its recurrence; PSs occur in > 15% of CAs, are caused by hormones, growth factors, biological response modifiers, and other as-yet unidentified factors, and may regress with treatment of the primary tumor. See Ectopic hormone.
Paraneoplastic syndromes
GI tract, eg anorexia, vomiting, protein-losing enteropathy, liver disease
Hematologic, eg leukemoid reaction, reactive eosinophilia, peripheral 'cytoses or 'cytopenias, hemolysis, DIC, thromboembolism, thrombophlebitis migrans
Hormonal effects
Metabolic disease, eg lactic acidosis, hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy, hyperamylasemia, hyperlipidemia
Neuromuscular, eg peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, CNS, spinal cord degeneration, inflammation
Renal, eg nephrotic syndrome, uric acid nephropathy
Skin, eg bullous mucocutaneous lesions, acquired ichthyosis, acanthosis nigricans, dermatomyositis
Others, eg callus formation, hypertension, and amyloidosis

neph·ric

(nef'rik)
Relating to the kidney.
Synonym(s): renal.

renal

Pertaining to the kidneys.

renal

pertaining to the kidney.

Renal

Relating to the kidney. The renal artery is one of two branches of the large blood vessel in the stomach area that serves the kidneys, ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder) and adrenal glands.

renal

pertaining to the kidneys.

neph·ric

(nef'rik)
Relating to the kidney.
Synonym(s): renal.

renal (rē´nəl),

adj pertaining to the kidneys.

renal

pertaining to the kidney. See also kidney.

renal abscess
results from infected emboli and infarcts. Usually without localizing signs unless they are very large and palpable, or when they extend into the renal pelvis and cause pyelonephritis.
renal adenoma
rare, incidental necropsy finding.
renal agenesis
failure of the renal tissue to develop; unilateral agenesis causes compensatory hypertrophy in the single kidney; bilateral is fatal. Commonly accompanies genital tract malformation.
renal artery
see Table 9.
avian renal hemorrhage
sporadic unexplained disease of turkeys; sudden death is common.
renal biopsy
is conducted usually with a biopsy needle introduced percutaneously through the flank. In food animals it is possible to fix the left kidney via a rectal manipulation, but the right kidney can be impossible to reach.
renal calculus
renal capsular cyst
see feline perirenal cysts.
renal carcinoma
commonest in old male dogs. They are very large, spread locally and metastasize widely.
renal casts
see urinary cast.
renal clearance tests
laboratory tests that determine the ability of the kidney to remove certain substances from the blood. See also phenolsulfonphthalein clearance test, inulin clearance.
renal cortical fissures
external fissures created by the lobar structure of the large ruminant kidney.
renal cortical hypoplasia
see renal dysplasia (below).
renal cortical necrosis
results from patchy or complete renal ischemia and is part of the terminal state of many diseases, e.g. severe metritis, grain overload in cattle, azoturia in horses.
renal countercurrent system
renal cyst
incidental necropsy finding except for polycystic kidney disease. See also feline perirenal cysts.
renal cystadenoma
inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in middle-aged German shepherd bitches with generalized nodular dermatofibrosis.
renal diabetes insipidus
see nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
renal dialysis
the application of the principles of dialysis for treatment of renal failure (below). See also hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
renal diverticuli
diverticuli of the renal pelvis.
renal dysfunction
reduced capacity to excrete metabolic products which accumulate systemically and are detectable clinicopathologically by renal function tests. The early stage of uremia.
renal dysplasia
small, misshapen kidneys at birth. May be caused by intrauterine infection of the fetus by virus, but numerous inherited renal dysplasias occur in dogs. They occur in several breeds and are manifested by signs of chronic renal insufficiency, e.g. polyuria, polydypsia, poor growth and weight gain, pale mucous membranes, and renal secondary osteodystrophia fibrosa, from an early age.
renal ectopia
see pelvic kidney, horseshoe kidney.
renal erythropoietic factor
erythropoietin.
renal failure
inability of the kidney to maintain normal function. Impairment of kidney function affects most of the body's systems because of its important role in maintaining fluid balance, regulating the electrochemical composition of body fluids, providing constant protection against acid-base imbalance, and controlling blood pressure. See also kidney.
renal function tests
include blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine estimations, tests of concentrating ability, tests of ability to excrete test substances, e.g. phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) clearance test. Of the urine tests, only specific gravity (SG) has any significance in terms of a function test but abnormalities of urine should lead to a function test being conducted.
renal hilus
a fissure on the medial border of the kidney through which arteries, veins and ureter enter.
renal hypophosphatemic rickets
inherited as an X-linked dominant trait in children and mice; characterized by hypophosphatemia and normocalcemia due to failure of phosphate resorption in renal tubules, and skeletal deformities. Called also vitamin-resistant rickets.
renal infarct
results from embolic or thrombotic occlusion of renal arteries or branches. Clinical signs are those of renal colic initially followed by toxemia if the infarct is infected.
renal insufficiency
see renal dysfunction (above).
renal ischemia
a significant cause of renal dysfunction and cortical and medullary necrosis. Is usually part of a general state of shock, dehydration and severe toxemia.
renal lobe
a large mass of a kidney, comprising the tissue contributing to each pyramid; kidneys may be unilobar (unipyramidal), e.g. cats, dogs, small ruminants, horses, or multilobar (multipyramidal), e.g. cattle, pigs.
renal lobule
small masses of kidney tissue comprising a medullary ray and its associated nephrons.
renal medullary necrosis
necrosis of the renal medulla due to restriction of blood flow in medullary vessels, usually due to venous occlusion.
renal medullary washout
see medullary solute washout.
renal mineralization
renal osteodystrophy, renal osteitis fibrosa, renal osteitis fibrosa cystica
see renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.
renal oxalosis
deposition of oxalate crystals in renal tubules of patients poisoned by dietary oxalate, usually in poisonous plants.
renal papillae
see renal papilla.
renal papillary necrosis
necrosis of renal papillae due usually to obstruction to urinary flow or poisoning or dehydration.
renal pelvis
the chamber in the kidney into which the collecting tubules discharge urine and from which urine is voided into the ureter.
renal plasma flow
the effective rate of blood flow through the kidneys; the determining factor relative to the rate of glomerular filtration.
renal portal system
a system unique to birds; half to two thirds of the blood supply to the kidney comes from the hindlimbs via veins and terminates in peritubular capillaries where it is mixed with arteriolar blood coming from the glomeruli.
renal rickets
see renal secondary hyperparathyroidism.
renal shutdown
cessation of the excretory function of the kidney; oliguria.
renal spongiform encephalopathy
spongiform encephalopathy associated with renal failure.
renal tubular casts
see urinary cast.
renal vein thrombosis
commonly associated with renal amyloidosis in dogs.

Patient discussion about renal

Q. what cause pain around kidney uncomfortable pressure swelling right side back

A. thanx....the pain is dull and there's no fever: muscular pain perhaps? If it worsens, persists or fever developes; I will head to the Doctor. thamx again....

Q. experiencing sharp pain in my right kidney region... pain is acute and doesnt radiate... recently PE left lung have been taking warfrin, panadiene forte, two kinds of cholesterol/triglycerine reducing meds and champix quit smoking medication... recently tests showed the hight cholesterol and triglys' levels and also a swollen liver... pain is not in my liver area... past pain in this kidney recurrent but never as bad. always dull.. many years ago had a uti, which caused high protiene levels.. very bad at finishing anti-biotics... recently had tonsilitis.. This hurts and is tender to touch but does not bring on sharp pain when touched, sharp pain comes and goes after taking pain relief

A. Go to see a doctor - although its tempting to make the diagnosis over the net (I have several ideas about what it might be), it sounds like serious, especially if you had a PE lately - it could be a thrombus in the vein of the kidney, or maybe a stone (sounds like that according to the description of the pain). However, as I said, making the diagnosis without even seeing you isn't the wisest thing to do.

Take care,

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