028), thereby suggesting that the derived extinction procedure was significantly more effective in extinguishing avoidance responding to the direct aversive stimulus
than was the direct extinction procedure.
The purpose of this experiment was to examine the relationship between the provocation-free interval, which provides a period of escape from an aversive stimulus
(point subtractions), and the rates of aggressive responding.
A persistent question in the study of avoidance is how avoidance behavior is maintained, particularly when continued avoidance responding prevents further contact with the aversive stimulus
These results appear consistent with Michael's (2000) analysis of how the function of demands may be altered from an aversive stimulus
to an opportunity for the delivery of reinforcement.
Although experiential avoidance differs in its topographical expression, this avoidance is maintained by the short-term reinforcement resulting from avoiding an aversive stimulus
primarily via negative reinforcement processes.
Positive reinforcement is used whenever a desirable outcome follows an appropriate response, and negative reinforcement is used whenever an aversive stimulus
or state of affairs is removed following an appropriate response.
The inactive participants' patterns of positive affect balance in the higher intensity exercise condition (if examined alone) supports Solomon's theory in that exposure to an aversive stimulus
results in self-reported aversive feelings states during exercise and a rebound to a more positive state during recovery.
Any behavior that results in escape or avoidance of an aversive stimulus
may be strengthened through negative reinforcement.
Although taste aversions generalize to other foods, mammalian herbivores continue to taste aversive foods in small quantities and readily resume consumption when the aversive stimulus
is reduced or removed (76).
Such considerations may have set the stage for redefining "negative reinforcement" as the strengthening of behavior through the withdrawal of an aversive stimulus
(Keller & Schoenfield, 1950; Skinner, 1953).
This event likely functions as an aversive stimulus
In such cases, the aversive stimulus
is often referred to as a negatively reinforcing stimulus or negative reinforcer.