A detailed understanding of the effects of MOs associated with emotions will also allow for the identification of a variety of environmental events that alter the extent to which events function as reinforcers and aversive
In other words, while private events may be naturally aversive
, and thus avoidance of private events may be reinforcin g in the short term without additional training, the theory of experiential avoidance largely suggests that most clinically-relevant private events are not inevitably aversive
but only become so through complex language and socialization processes.
Behavior-specific restraint may or may not involve the removal of the antecedent aversive
condition when it is effected.
In the case of punishment or aversive
stimulation, it could be argued that at least some of the controversy and confusion has been generated by the terms themselves.
First, some may engineer situations in which feelings of freedom are generated immediately, but delayed outcomes have aversive
Controversy over punishment has led to dozens of position papers (see chapters in Repp & Singh, 1990), as well as debates over the legality of aversive
stimuli (Lohrmann-O'Rourke & Zirkel, 1998), the long-term effects of punishment-based discipline (Benjet & Kazdin, 2003), and even the interpretation of B.
The fronto-limbic activation pattern observed during induced dissociation was the opposite of that seen in studies of patients with borderline personality disorder evaluating automatic regulation of emotion in response to aversive
pictures or memories, Dr.
Avoidance is defined widely as behavior that allows an organism to prevent or postpone the delivery of an aversive
stimulus (Azrin and Holz 1966; Dinsmoor 1954, 1977).
In natural environments, chances for survival depend on learning about possible aversive
and appetitive outcomes and on the appropriate behavioral responses.
Racism Theory Versus Social Identity Theory
The product has been designed to deliver these features without the use of antagonists or aversive
agents while maintaining the safety and efficacy that patients and their physicians trust to achieve pain relief.
Sadly some dog trainers are still using aversive
and punishing methods in classes and privately.