Simulated microgravity contributes to autophagy
induction by regulating AMP-activated protein kinase.
It is also the case that a number of health-promoting nutrients that stimulate Nrf2 also act to increase the process of autophagy
by which damaged organelles and also damaging protein aggregates can be degraded proteolytically, with such autophagy
occurring in part via a Nrf2-dependent process.
Results: Exposure to GUTK was observed to markedly induce GFP-LC3 puncta formation and activate the accumulation of LC3-II and the degradation of p62 in HeLa cells, suggesting that GUTK is an autophagy
When the researchers lowered the gene expression of Beclin-1 in rat heart cells exposed to high glucose, excessive autophagy
and cell death rates were much reduced.
Earlier work in the laboratory of Levine identified Beclin 1 as the first mammalian gene shown to function in autophagy
Sulzer, "is that hundreds of genes have been linked to autism, but almost all of our human subjects had overactive mTOR and decreased autophagy
, and all appear to have a lack of normal synaptic pruning.
mTOR is an evolutionarily conserved Ser/Thr protein kinase that controls many cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, cell size, transcription, cytoskeleton dynamics, and autophagy
in response to a variety of environmental cues (Harris and Lawrence, 2003; Jacinto and Hall, 2003; Wullschleger et al.
Like tearing apart a Lego kit, autophagy
breaks down unneeded cellular components into building blocks of energy or proteins for use in surviving times of low energy or staying safe from poisons and pathogens (among other uses).
Andersen has isolated a compound called clionamine B from a South African sea sponge that stimulates autophagy
is a degradation system within cells that removes damaged proteins and other defective cellular components, and autophagy
insufficiency is common in obese individuals.
The administration of the extract also induced changes in the cells suggestive of autophagy
(a catabolic process in which a cell degrades its own components), possibly induced by increased levels of histone deacetylase activity.
This is called autophagy
and is particularly good for your brain.