autonomic

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autonomic

 [aw″to-nom´ik]
not subject to voluntary control.
autonomic dysreflexia an uninhibited and exaggerated reflex of the autonomic nervous system to stimulation; called also hyperreflexia. The response occurs in 85 per cent of all patients who have spinal cord injury above the level of the sixth thoracic vertebra. It is potentially dangerous because of attendant vasoconstriction and immediate elevation of blood pressure, which in turn can bring about hemorrhagic retinal damage or stroke syndrome. Less serious effects include severe headache; changes in heart rate; sweating, flushing, and “goose bumps” or piloerection above the level of the spinal cord injury; and pallor below that level.
Patient Care. Circumstances that can trigger autonomic dysreflexia are often related to stimulation of the bladder, bowel, and skin of the patient. Examples are a distended bowel or bladder, pressure on the skin, or any of a number of noxious stimuli.

Once the symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia are manifest, emergency care is indicated. Efforts are made to lower the blood pressure by placing the patient in a sitting position or elevating the head and upper body to a 45-degree angle. The stimulus must be identified and removed as gently and quickly as possible. If fecal impaction is the cause, the rectum should be coated with an anesthetic ointment prior to attempted removal of the impaction; this prevents increasing the stimulus to autonomic dysreflexia. The physician is notified so that appropriate medical intervention can be initiated. Antihypertensive drugs are a last resort. As soon as the cause is identified and removed, the dysreflexia will disappear. Patients who experience repeated attacks may require surgery to sever the nerves responsible for the exaggerated response to stimulation.
autonomic nervous system the branch of the nervous system that works without conscious control. The voluntary nervous system governs the striated or skeletal muscles, whereas the autonomic nervous system governs the glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscles such as those of the digestive system, respiratory system, and skin. The autonomic nervous system is divided into two subsidiary systems, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. See Plate 14.

au·to·nom·ic

(aw'tō-nom'ik),
Relating to the autonomic nervous system.

autonomic

/au·to·nom·ic/ (aw″to-nom´ik) not subject to voluntary control. See under system.

autonomic

(ô′tə-nŏm′ĭk)
adj.
1. Physiology
a. Of, relating to, or controlled by the autonomic nervous system.
b. Occurring involuntarily; automatic: an autonomic reflex.
2. Resulting from internal stimuli; spontaneous.

au′to·nom′i·cal·ly adv.

autonomic

[ô′tənom′ik]
Etymology: Gk, autos + nomos, law
1 having the ability to function independently without outside influence.
2 pertaining to the autonomic nervous system.

autonomic

adjective
(1) Autonomous.
(2) Referring or pertaining to the autonomic nervous system.

autonomic

adjective
1. Autonomous; self controlled; functionally independent.
2. Referring to the autonomic nervous system, see there.

au·to·nom·ic

(aw'tō-nom'ik)
Relating to the autonomic nervous system.

autonomic

  1. appertaining to that part of the nervous system controlling involuntary muscles (see AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM).
  2. (in plants) movements arising from internal stimuli, e.g. protoplasmic streaming; spiral growth of stem apices.

Autonomic

Refers to peripheral nerves that carry signals from the brain and that control involuntary actions in the body, such as the beating of the heart.
Mentioned in: Peripheral Neuropathy

au·to·nom·ic

(aw'tō-nom'ik)
Relating to the autonomic nervous system.

autonomic,

n See autonomic nervous system.
autonomic drugs,
n agents that act on the autonomic nervous system.
autonomic dysreflexia/hyperreflexia
n an emergent, typically life-threatening, medical condition resulting from a dramatic increase in blood pressure occurring in individuals with traumatic lesions at or above T6. Symptoms may include a throbbing headache, blushing, chills, sweating, stuffy nose, and fidgetiness.
autonomic nervous system (ANS),
n a subdivision of the efferent peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary vital function, including the activity of the cardiac muscle, the smooth muscle, and the glands. Has two parts: the sympathetic nervous system, which accelerates heart rate, constricts blood vessels, and raises blood pressure; and the parasympathetic nervous system, which slows heart rate, increases intestinal peristalsis and gland activity, and relaxes sphincters. See also peripheral nervous system.
autonomic nervous system, fibers of, in pulp,
n.pl the nerve fibers of the sympathetic autonomic system that enter the pulp tissue and function in regulating blood flow.
autonomic symptoms,
n the indications of pathology or trauma, including paleness, sweating, blushing, dilation of pupils, irregular cardiac rhythm, and lack of bladder control.

autonomic

not subject to voluntary control.

autonomic craniosacral outflow
the parasympathetic nervous system includes nerve fibers in the oculomotor, facial and glossopharyngeal and vagal cranial nerves. The sacral outflow includes autonomic fibers in the ventral nerve roots of the sacral nerves.
autonomic drug
drugs that have effects similar to those of the effector agents in the two systems are called sympathomimetic and parasympathomimetic drugs.
autonomic ganglionic blocking agent
nicotine and some synthetic compounds such as hexamethonium, pentamethonium and others specifically paralyze the nerve cells in autonomic ganglia thus neutralizing the sympathetic and parasympathic postganglionic fibers that emanate from that particular ganglion.
autonomic nervous system
see autonomic nervous system.
autonomic parasympathetic effects
include constriction of the pupil and the bronchioles, increased secretory activity of glands, increased tone and motility of the gut, relaxation of the sphincters.
autonomic reflex arc
comprises the afferent fibers from sensory end organs which pass into the spinal cord via the dorsal roots, ascend through the sensory columns in the spinal cord to the hypothalamus. Efferent fibers pass from there to subhypothalamic motor levels.
autonomic sympathetic effects
include the fight-or-flight reactions of dilatation of blood vessels to muscles, constriction of others, dilatation of pupils and bronchioles, and inhibition of glandular and plain muscle activity.
autonomic thoracolumbar outflow
the sympathetic nervous system consists of neurons in the intermediolateral gray column of the thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord which leave the cord in the ventral branches of thoracic and lumbar nerves. Once outside the vertebral column the neurons leave the spinal nerve and join the paravertebral sympathetic trunk to enter ganglia from which postganglionic fibers go their separate ways to effector organs.