the introduction of whole blood or blood components directly into the bloodstream. Among the elements transfused, in addition to whole blood, are packed red blood cells, plasma, platelets, granulocytes and cryoprecipitate, a plasma protein rich in antihemophilic factor VIII. See also autotransfusion
autologous blood transfusion
transfusion of the animal's own blood.
whole blood is most often indicated to maintain or replace blood volume, to provide deficient blood elements and improve coagulation, to maintain or improve transport of oxygen, and in liver failure in which toxins accumulate in the blood, or in some other types of toxemia.
transfer of whole blood from the donor through a tube, directly to the recipient.
blood is removed from the recipient at the same time and in the same amount as blood is being administered from the donor.
see transfusion reaction (below).
a group of clinical signs due to antibody in the recipient's blood reacting with the transfused red blood cells when blood for transfusion is incorrectly matched, or when the recipient has an adverse reaction to some element of the donor blood. Most commonly, there is an immune-mediated hemolysis involving alloantibodies, which may be naturally occurring or the result of an earlier transfusion, in the recipient's serum and the donor's erythrocytes. In ruminants, signs appear during the transfusion, beginning with hiccough, then tremor, dyspnea, lacrimation, fever, ruminal tympany, hemoglobinuria and subsequent abortion. If death occurs, it is because of pulmonary edema. Similar signs are seen in other species. Urticaria and erythema sometimes occur in dogs and cats.
Nonimmunological transfusion reactions include cardiovascular overload, hypocalcemic tetany from citrate (used as the anticoagulant) overload, and disease transmission.
the administration of whole blood or blood components, usually in the treatment of bleeding disorders.