massage (ma-sozh') [Fr. masser, to massage]
1. Manipulation, rhythmic pressure, friction, and/or kneading of soft tissues (skin, muscles, tendons, ligaments and fascia) with the hands, forearms, elbows, knees, or feet.
CAUTION!Vigorous massage should be avoided by patients taking anticoagulant drugs or patients with low platelet counts: in these patients, massage may cause bleeding or bruising. Massage should also be avoided over known tumors, blood clots, or prosthetic body parts.
2. The therapeutic application of touch by a licensed massage practitioner. Massage may aid in the treatment of anxiety, arthritis, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression, fibromyalgia, musculoskeletal pain, premenstrual syndrome, sports injuries, and stress.
Massage of the eardrum.
Manual compression of the heart to restore pump function. See: cardiopulmonary resuscitation for illus
carotid sinus massage Abbreviation: CSM
Application of pressure to and rubbing of the carotid artery to slow a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). This is one of the maneuvers sometimes used before drug therapy for SVT.
CSM should not be performed on patients with known atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries, on patients who are elderly or of advanced middle age, or on patients with carotid bruits. Stroke may result from the procedure, esp. if small emboli break off from the carotid artery during the massage.
A patient with narrow complex tachycardia (QRS duration of less than 0.12 sec) is placed in a supine position and given supplementary oxygen. An intravenous catheter is inserted, and an automated blood pressure cuff is applied. Electrodes are placed on the chest to monitor heart rate and rhythm, and an oximeter is positioned on a finger or earlobe. The carotid arteries are examined for bruits. If any are present, the procedure should not be performed. The carotid sinus is located approximately 2 cm above the thyroid cartilage on the nondominant artery (usually the right carotid artery). Firm pressure is applied to the artery in a back and forth motion for about 5 seconds. The heart rate and rhythm are carefully observed during the procedure.
Massage by means of an electric vibrator.
Manual stimulation of a boggy postpartum uterus to generate effective contractions, express clots, and limit postpartum hemorrhage. To relax the patient's abdominal muscles, the birth attendant places the patient in the lithotomy position. Cupping the dominant hand around the fundus and placing the other hand just above the pubic symphysis to support the lower uterine segment, the attendant gently massages the uterine fundus. When the fundus is firm, gentle downward pressure expresses any clots that have accumulated in the uterine cavity. See: postpartum hemorrhage
; uterine inversion
Exerting downward pressure on an uncontracted fundus may cause uterine inversion and massive hemorrhage.
Centripetal stroking in connection with some muscular kneading from the toes upward. It is used in connection with baths lasting 30 to 40 min. As soon as a part is massaged, it should be given a few passive rotary movements and afterwards covered up.
Application of ice for a therapeutic effect. Paper cups containing water previously frozen are preferable. The cups are rubbed over a localized area in small circles for 5 to 10 min to numb the part and prepare it for deep pressure or deep transverse friction massage. Ice massage is also used to treat traumatized tissues and joints. See: cryotherapy
A cold source such as a cup containing frozen water or a plastic pack that holds a cold gel is applied to joints, muscles, tendons, or other tissues. The pack is held in place or rubbed over a localized area in small circles for 5 to 10 min to numb the part and prepare it for deep pressure or deep transverse friction massage.
Massage consisting of centripetal strokings around an affected part when it is impossible to apply treatment directly to the part.
Massage confined to particular body parts.
Massage of the lower back.
Manipulation of the eye to alter intraocular pressure or ocular blood flow.
Rubbing of the prostate gland during digital rectal examination. It is used to express prostatic fluid so that it can be analyzed.
Massage performed from a distal to a proximal direction. It is used to reduce edema in the extremities.
Massage combined with active and passive exercise, (effleurage, pétrissage, friction, tapotement, and vibration).
Massage of the uterus. It may be performed after childbirth in order to reduce postpartum bleeding.
An obsolete treatment in which a medicated and nebulized vapor was introduced in pulsatile fashion into a cavity.
Massage by rapidly repeated tapping of the affected surface by means of a vibrating hammer or sound.