Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to attenuated vaccine: inactivated vaccine
a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, or rickettsiae), administered for prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious diseases.
anthrax vaccine a cell-free protein extract of cultures of Bacillus anthracis, used for immunization against anthrax.
attenuated vaccine a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms or viruses cultured under adverse conditions, leading to loss of their virulence but retention of their ability to induce protective immunity.
autogenous vaccine a vaccine prepared from microorganisms which have been freshly isolated from the lesion of the patient who is to be treated with it.
bacterial vaccine a preparation of killed or attenuated bacteria used as an active immunizing agent.
BCG vaccine see bcg vaccine.
cholera vaccine a preparation of killed Vibrio cholerae, administered intradermally, subcutaneously, or intramuscularly for immunization against cholera.
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine DTP vaccine: a combination of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine; administered intramuscularly for simultaneous immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough. When the pertussis vaccine is an acellular form, the combination may be abbreviated DTaP.
diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine adsorbed and Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine a combination of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, pertussis vaccine, and Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine; administered intramuscularly to children 18 months to 5 years of age for simultaneous immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, and infection by Haemophilus influenzae type b.
DTP vaccine diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccine.
Haemophilus b conjugate vaccine (HbCV) a preparation of Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide covalently bound to diphtheria toxoid or to a specific diphtheria protein, meningococcal protein, or tetanus protein; it stimulates both B and T lymphocyte responses and is much more immunogenic than the polysaccharide vaccine. Administered intramuscularly as a routine immunizing agent in infants and young children.
Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine (HbPV) a preparation of highly purified capsular polysaccharide derived from Haemophilus influenzae type b, which stimulates an immune response in B lymphocytes only; administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously as an immunizing agent in children ages 18 months to 5 years.
hepatitis A vaccine inactivated an inactivated whole virus vaccine derived from an attenuated strain of hepatitis A virus grown in cell culture; administered intramuscularly.
hepatitis B vaccine a preparation of hepatitis B surface antigen, derived either from human plasma of carriers of hepatitis B (hepatitis B vaccine inactivated) or from cloning in yeast cells (hepatitis B vaccine [recombinant]); administered intramuscularly.
heterologous vaccine a vaccine that confers protective immunity against a pathogen that shares cross-reacting antigens with the microorganisms in the vaccine.
human diploid cell vaccine rabies vaccine prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of human diploid embryo lung cells and inactivated; administered intramuscularly or intradermally.
influenza virus vaccine a killed virus vaccine used in immunization against influenza; it is trivalent, usually containing two influenza A virus strains and one influenza B virus strain.
live vaccine a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have been attenuated but retain their immunogenic properties.
Lyme disease vaccine (recombinant OspA) a preparation of outer surface protein A (OspA), a cell surface lipoprotein of Borrelia burgdorferi, produced by recombinant technology; administered intramuscularly for active immunization against lyme disease.
measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine live (MMR) a combination of live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against measles, mumps, and rubella.
measles and rubella virus vaccine live a combination of live attenuated measles and rubella viruses, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against measles and rubella.
measles virus vaccine live a live attenuated virus vaccine used for immunization against measles, although it is usually administered as the combination measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine.
meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine a preparation of a capsular antigen of Neisseria meningitidis, administered subcutaneously to provide immunity to meningitis.
mumps virus vaccine live a live attenuated virus vaccine used in immunization against mumps; usually administered as the combination measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine.
pertussis vaccine a preparation of killed Bordetella pertussis bacilli (whole-cell vaccine) or of purified antigenic components thereof (acellular vaccine), used to immunize against pertussis; generally used in combination with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP or DTaP).
plague vaccine a preparation of killed Yersinia pestis bacilli, administered intramuscularly as an active immunizing agent against plague.
pneumococcal heptavalent conjugate vaccine a preparation of capsular polysaccharides from the seven serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae most commonly isolated from children 6 years of age or younger, coupled to a nontoxic variant of diphtheria toxin; used as an active immunizing agent for infants and children at risk for pneumococcal disease, administered intramuscularly.
pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent a preparation of purified capsular polysaccharides from the 23 serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing the majority of pneumococcal disease; used as an active immunizing agent in persons over 2 years of age, administered intramuscularly.
poliovirus vaccine inactivated (IPV) a preparation of killed polioviruses of three types, given in a series of intramuscular or subcutaneous injections to immunize against poliomyelitis. It does not induce intestinal immunity and so is not effective for poliovirus eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses still exist in large numbers. However, it does not cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and so is preferred for routine immunization in areas where the risk of infection by a wild-type poliovirus is very low, as in the United States. Called also Salk vaccine.
poliovirus vaccine live oral (OPV) an oral vaccine against poliomyelitis consisting of three types of live, attenuated polioviruses. It is given orally, often on a sugar cube, and so is convenient for administration to children and large groups of people. It induces both humoral and intestinal immunity, so is useful for immunization and poliomyelitis eradication in areas where wild-type polioviruses have not been eradicated. However, it can cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in persons newly vaccinated with it and their contacts, which is considered an unjustifiable risk in countries such as the United States, where the risk of exposure to wild-type polioviruses is very low. Thus, for routine immunization in the United States, it has been superseded by poliovirus vaccine inactivated. Called also Sabin vaccine.
polyvalent vaccine a vaccine prepared from cultures or antigens of more than one strain or species.
purified chick embryo cell vaccine an inactivated virus vaccine used for pre- and postexposure rabies immunization, prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of chicken fibroblasts; administered intramuscularly.
rabies vaccine any of various vaccines against rabies consisting of inactivated virus, used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, such as veterinarians, and for postexposure prophylaxis in conjunction with rabies immune globulin. See human diploid cell v., purified chick embryo cell v., and rabies v. adsorbed.
rabies vaccine adsorbed (RVA) a rabies vaccine prepared from rabies virus grown in cultures of fetal rhesus monkey lung and inactivated; administered intramuscularly.
rotavirus vaccine live oral a live virus vaccine produced from a mixture of four types of rotavirus, used to immunize infants against rotaviral gastroenteritis.
rubella and mumps virus vaccine live a combination of live attenuated rubella and mumps viruses, administered subcutaneously for simultaneous immunization against rubella and mumps.
rubella virus vaccine live a live attenuated virus vaccine used for immunization against rubella, usually administered as the combination measles, mumps, and rubella virus vaccine.
Sabin vaccine poliovirus vaccine live oral.
Salk vaccine poliovirus vaccine inactivated.
subunit vaccine a vaccine produced from specific protein subunits of a virus and thus having less risk of adverse reactions than whole virus vaccines.
typhoid vaccine any of several preparations of Salmonella typhi used for immunization against typhoid fever, including a parenteral heat- and phenol-inactivated bacteria vaccine, an oral live vaccine prepared from the attenuated strain Ty21a, and a parenteral vaccine prepared from typhoid Vi capsular polysaccharide.
varicella virus vaccine live a preparation of live, attenuated human herpesvirus 3 (varicella-zoster virus) administered subcutaneously for production of immunity to varicella and herpes zoster.
yellow fever vaccine a preparation of attenuated yellow fever virus, used to immunize against yellow fever.
live pathogens that have lost their virulence but are still capable of inducing a protective immune response to the virulent forms of the pathogen, for example, Sabin polio vaccine.
attenuated vaccineA vaccine based on an attenuated virus, which has low virulence due to genetic inactivation or chemical treatment.
at·ten·u·at·ed vac·cine(ă-tenyū-āt-ĕd vak-sēn)
Live pathogens that have lost their virulence but are still capable of inducing a protective immune response to the virulent forms of the pathogen.
a suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms (viruses, bacteria or rickettsiae), administered for prevention, amelioration or treatment of infectious diseases.
antibody made to antigenic determinants located in the variable domains of immunoglobulin molecules. Proposed as a means of regulating antibody responses and also as a substitute antigen for vaccination.
a vaccine prepared from live microorganisms that have lost their virulence but retained their ability to induce protective immunity. Attenuated microorganisms including particularly bacteria and viruses may be found naturally or they may be produced in the laboratory, for example by adaptation to a new medium or cell culture or they may be produced by recombinant DNA technology.
a vaccine prepared from cultures of material derived from a lesion of the animal to be vaccinated, e.g. wart vaccine.
a preparation of attenuated or killed bacteria, used to immunize against organisms injected, or sometimes for pyrogenetic effects in treatment of certain noninfectious diseases.
a formulation containing a protective, noninfectious, immunogenic subunit produced in or by a biological system.
a vaccine, usually a virus, attenuated by serial passage through goats, e.g. caprinized rinderpest vaccine. In highly susceptible cattle this vaccine may cause significant reactions and lapinized vaccines are preferred.
one that should always be included in the basic immunization program for the species.
inactivated vaccine; one with organisms that have been killed.
DNA sequences that code for immunogenic proteins located in appropriately constructed plasmids which include strong promoters, which when injected into an animal are taken up by cells and the immunogenic proteins are expressed and elicit an immune response. No vaccines of this type are licensed and concerns about safety have not been resolved.
one developed from a virus that is antigenically distinct but related to that causing the disease for which the animal is being immunized, e.g. measles vaccine used to protect dogs from canine distemper.
one developed from the same virus as that causing the disease the animal is being immunized against.
human diploid cell vaccine
an inactivated rabies vaccine made from rabies virus grown on human embryo lung fibroblast cells.
see dead vaccine (above).
killed virus (KV) vaccine
see dead vaccine (above).
a vaccine prepared from live, usually attenuated, microorganisms.
material containing vaccinia virus collected from vaccinial vesicles of inoculated calves; used for active immunization against smallpox.
see mixed bacterial vaccine.
modified live virus (MLV) vaccine
see attenuated vaccine (above).
one prepared from more than one strain or species of microorganisms.
one created by recombinant DNA technology.
one containing only specific antigenic proteins of the infectious agent.
synthetic peptide vaccine
using synthetic short peptides which correspond with major epitopes of viral proteins to elicit a protective antibody response.
use of viruses as vectors to carry selected genes from another virus for immunization.