atropine sulfate


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atropine sulfate

AtroPen

atropine sulfate ophthalmic

Pharmacologic class: Anticholinergic (antimuscarinic)

Therapeutic class: Antiarrhythmic

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Inhibits acetylcholine at parasympathetic neuroeffector junction of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, blocking sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodes. These actions increase impulse conduction and raise heart rate. In ophthalmic use, blocks cholinergic stimulation to iris and ciliary bodies, causing pupillary dilation and accommodation paralysis.

Availability

Injection: 0.05 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml, 0.3 mg/ml, 0.4 mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml, 0.8 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml

Ophthalmic solution: 0.5%, 1%, 2%

Tablets: 0.4 mg

Indications and dosages

Bradyarrhythmias, symptomatic bradycardia

Adults: 0.5 to 1 mg by I.V. push repeated q 3 to 5 minutes as needed, to a maximum dosage of 2 mg

Children: 0.01 mg/kg I.V. to a maximum dosage of 0.4 mg or 0.3 mg/m2. May repeat I.V. dose q 4 to 6 hours.

Antidote for anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning

Adults: 2 to 3 mg I.V. repeated q 5 to 10 minutes until symptoms disappear or a toxic level is reached. For severe poisoning, 6 mg q hour.

Children: 0.05 mg/kg I.M. or I.V. repeated q every 10 to 30 minutes until symptoms disappear or a toxic level is reached

Preoperatively to diminish secretions and block cardiac vagal reflexes

Adults and children weighing more than 40.8 kg (90 lb): 0.4 to 0.6 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia

Children weighing 29.5 to 40.8 kg (65 to 90 lb): 0.4 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia

Children weighing 18.1 to 29.5 kg (40 to 65 lb): 0.3 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia

Children weighing 10.9 to 18.1 kg (24 to 40 lb): 0.2 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia

Children weighing 7.3 to 10.9 kg (16 to 24 lb): 0.15 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia

Children weighing 3.2 to 7.3 kg (7 to 16 lb): 0.1 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia

Peptic ulcer disease, functional GI disorders (such as hypersecretory states)

Adults: 0.4 to 0.6 mg P.O. q 4 to 6 hours

Children: 0.01 mg/kg or 0.3/m2 P.O. q 4 to 6 hours

Parkinsonism

Adults: 0.1 to 0.25 mg P.O. q.i.d.

Antidote for muscarine-induced mushroom toxicity

Adults: 1 to 2 mg/hour I.M. or I.V. until respiratory function improves

Pupillary dilation in acute inflammatory conditions of iris and uveal tract

Adults: Instill one or two drops of 0.5% or 1% solution into eye(s) up to q.i.d.

Children: Instill one or two drops of 0.5% solution into eye(s) up to t.i.d.

To produce mydriasis and cycloplegia for refraction

Adults: Instill one or two drops of 1% solution into eye(s) 1 hour before refraction.

Children: Instill one or two drops of 0.5% solution into eye(s) b.i.d. for 1 to 3 days before examination.

Off-label uses

• Cholinergic-mediated bronchial asthma

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or other belladonna alkaloids

• Acute narrow-angle glaucoma

• Adhesions between iris and lens (ophthalmic form)

• Obstructive GI tract disease

• Unstable cardiovascular status

• Asthma

• Myasthenia gravis

• Thyrotoxicosis

• Infants ages 3 months and younger

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• chronic renal, hepatic, pulmonary, or cardiac disease

• intra-abdominal infection, prostatic hypertrophy

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children.

Administration

• For I.V. dose, infuse directly into large vein or I.V. tubing over at least 1 minute.

• Be aware that doses of 0.5 mg may cause paradoxical bradycardia because of central or peripheral parasympathomimetic effects of low doses in adults.

• Don't administer oral dose within 1 hour of giving antacids.

• Be aware that patients with Down syndrome may be unusually sensitive to drug.

Adverse effects

CNS: headache, restlessness, ataxia, disorientation, delirium, insomnia, dizziness, drowsiness, agitation, nervousness, confusion, excitement

CV: palpitations, bradycardia, tachycardia

EENT: photophobia, blurred vision, increased intraocular pressure, mydriasis, cycloplegia, nasal congestion

GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation, bloating, dyspepsia, ileus, abdominal distention (in infants), dysphagia, dry mouth

GU: urinary retention, urinary hesitancy, impotence

Skin: decreased sweating, flushing, urticaria, dry skin

Other: thirst, anaphylaxis

Interactions

Drug-drug. Amantadine, antiarrhythmics, anticholinergics, antihistamines, antiparkinsonian drugs, glutethimide, meperidine, muscle relaxants, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants: increased atropine effects

Antacids, antidiarrheals: decreased atropine absorption

Antimyasthenics: decreased intestinal motility

Cyclopropane: ventricular arrhythmias Ketoconazole, levodopa: decreased absorption of these drugs

Metoclopramide: decreased effect of atropine on GI motility

Potassium chloride wax-matrix tablets: increased severity of mucosal lesions

Drug-herbs. Jaborandi tree, pill-bearing spurge: decreased drug effect

Jimsonweed: changes in cardiovascular function

Squaw vine: reduced metabolic breakdown of drug

Drug-behaviors. Sun exposure: increased risk of photophobia

Patient monitoring

Watch closely for signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis.

• Monitor heart rate for bradycardia or tachycardia.

• Evaluate fluid intake and output.

• Assess for urine retention or urinary hesitancy.

• Monitor for signs and symptoms of glaucoma.

Patient teaching

Instruct patient to immediately report allergic response.

Inform patient that headache, eye pain, and blurred vision may signal glaucoma. Tell him to report these symptoms at once.

• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration, alertness, and vision.

• Encourage patient to establish an effective bedtime routine to minimize insomnia.

• Tell patient to apply pressure to inside corner of eye during instillation of ophthalmic solution and for 1 to 2 minutes afterward.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

atropine sulfate

an antispasmodic and anticholinergic.
indications It may be prescribed in the treatment of GI hypermotility to decrease the tone of the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder in urinary tract disorders, for cycloplegic refraction and dilation of the pupil in inflammation of the iris or the uvea, cardiac arrhythmias, and certain kinds of poisoning and as an adjunct to anesthesia.
contraindications GI obstruction, glaucoma, hepatitis, liver or kidney dysfunction, porphyria, or known hypersensitivity to this drug or other anticholinergics prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse reactions are tachycardia, angina, loss of taste, nausea, diarrhea, skin rash, blurred vision, and eye pain. Dry mouth and constipation are common effects.

atropine sulfate

(a'tro-pen? ) [ Atrop(a belladonna), a species name+ -ine]
A salt of an alkaloid obtained from belladonna. A parasympatholytic agent, it counteracts the effects of parasympathetic stimulation. It is used primarily to treat potentially life-threatening bradycardias and heart blocks.
See: atropine sulfate poisoning

atropine

an anticholinergic alkaloid occurring in belladonna, hyoscyamus and stramonium. It acts as a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, blocking stimulation of muscles and glands by parasympathetic and cholinergic sympathetic nerves; used as a smooth muscle relaxant, as a preanesthetic to reduce secretions, and as an antidote to organophosphate poisoning. Has been used as a spasmolytic in many cases of gut hypermotility, e.g. equine spasmodic colic. Has the disadvantage of causing prolonged pupillary dilatation.

atropine challenge test
used in the diagnosis of narcolepsy in dogs; pretreatment with atropine reduces the number of cataleptic attacks with exposure to food.
atropine methobromide
a synthetic muscarinic blocking agent used as a smooth muscle relaxant but less effective against poisoning with organophosphorus insecticides than atropine. Called also methylatropine.
atropine poisoning
severe toxic reaction due to overdosage of atropine. Signs include dilated pupils, absent pupillary light reflex, dry mouth, high heart rate, excitement, muscle tremor. In animals usually results from atropine overdose.
atropine sulfate
the pharmaceutical preparation in common use.
References in periodicals archive ?
Plasma glucose (mg/dL) levels of rats 30 min pretreated iv with saline (C), 1 or 5 mg/kg atropine sulfate (AT1 and AT5, respectively) and then iv treated with vehicle (V), 0.
The animals were preanesthesised with Atropine sulfate @ 0.
Preoperative preparation and sedation in manipulation of short duration: 1:14 atropine sulfate.
Post-operatively Ofloxacin eye drop (Oflox (a)) one drop three hourly for seven days, Atropine sulfate eye drop (Topin (b)) one drop once daily for two days, systemic antibiotic (Ceftriaxone) 500 mg intravenously once daily for five days, Serratio peptidase enzyme 5mg thrice daily for four days and Flurbiprofen eye drop one drop twice daily for seven days were prescribed.
The site was prepared aseptically, general anaesthesia was induced by Atropine sulfate @ 0.
Contract awarded for atropine sulfate, injectable solution 0.