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atropine sulfate ophthalmic
Pharmacologic class: Anticholinergic (antimuscarinic)
Therapeutic class: Antiarrhythmic
Pregnancy risk category C
Inhibits acetylcholine at parasympathetic neuroeffector junction of smooth muscle and cardiac muscle, blocking sinoatrial (SA) and atrioventricular (AV) nodes. These actions increase impulse conduction and raise heart rate. In ophthalmic use, blocks cholinergic stimulation to iris and ciliary bodies, causing pupillary dilation and accommodation paralysis.
Injection: 0.05 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml, 0.3 mg/ml, 0.4 mg/ml, 0.5 mg/ml, 0.8 mg/ml, 1 mg/ml
Ophthalmic solution: 0.5%, 1%, 2%
Tablets: 0.4 mg
Indications and dosages
➣ Bradyarrhythmias, symptomatic bradycardia
Adults: 0.5 to 1 mg by I.V. push repeated q 3 to 5 minutes as needed, to a maximum dosage of 2 mg
Children: 0.01 mg/kg I.V. to a maximum dosage of 0.4 mg or 0.3 mg/m2. May repeat I.V. dose q 4 to 6 hours.
➣ Antidote for anticholinesterase insecticide poisoning
Adults: 2 to 3 mg I.V. repeated q 5 to 10 minutes until symptoms disappear or a toxic level is reached. For severe poisoning, 6 mg q hour.
Children: 0.05 mg/kg I.M. or I.V. repeated q every 10 to 30 minutes until symptoms disappear or a toxic level is reached
➣ Preoperatively to diminish secretions and block cardiac vagal reflexes
Adults and children weighing more than 40.8 kg (90 lb): 0.4 to 0.6 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia
Children weighing 29.5 to 40.8 kg (65 to 90 lb): 0.4 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia
Children weighing 18.1 to 29.5 kg (40 to 65 lb): 0.3 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia
Children weighing 10.9 to 18.1 kg (24 to 40 lb): 0.2 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia
Children weighing 7.3 to 10.9 kg (16 to 24 lb): 0.15 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia
Children weighing 3.2 to 7.3 kg (7 to 16 lb): 0.1 mg I.M., I.V., or subcutaneously 30 to 60 minutes before anesthesia
➣ Peptic ulcer disease, functional GI disorders (such as hypersecretory states)
Adults: 0.4 to 0.6 mg P.O. q 4 to 6 hours
Children: 0.01 mg/kg or 0.3/m2 P.O. q 4 to 6 hours
Adults: 0.1 to 0.25 mg P.O. q.i.d.
➣ Antidote for muscarine-induced mushroom toxicity
Adults: 1 to 2 mg/hour I.M. or I.V. until respiratory function improves
➣ Pupillary dilation in acute inflammatory conditions of iris and uveal tract
Adults: Instill one or two drops of 0.5% or 1% solution into eye(s) up to q.i.d.
Children: Instill one or two drops of 0.5% solution into eye(s) up to t.i.d.
➣ To produce mydriasis and cycloplegia for refraction
Adults: Instill one or two drops of 1% solution into eye(s) 1 hour before refraction.
Children: Instill one or two drops of 0.5% solution into eye(s) b.i.d. for 1 to 3 days before examination.
• Cholinergic-mediated bronchial asthma
• Hypersensitivity to drug or other belladonna alkaloids
• Acute narrow-angle glaucoma
• Adhesions between iris and lens (ophthalmic form)
• Obstructive GI tract disease
• Unstable cardiovascular status
• Myasthenia gravis
• Infants ages 3 months and younger
Use cautiously in:
• chronic renal, hepatic, pulmonary, or cardiac disease
• intra-abdominal infection, prostatic hypertrophy
• elderly patients
• pregnant or breastfeeding patients
• For I.V. dose, infuse directly into large vein or I.V. tubing over at least 1 minute.
• Be aware that doses of 0.5 mg may cause paradoxical bradycardia because of central or peripheral parasympathomimetic effects of low doses in adults.
• Don't administer oral dose within 1 hour of giving antacids.
• Be aware that patients with Down syndrome may be unusually sensitive to drug.
CNS: headache, restlessness, ataxia, disorientation, delirium, insomnia, dizziness, drowsiness, agitation, nervousness, confusion, excitement
CV: palpitations, bradycardia, tachycardia
EENT: photophobia, blurred vision, increased intraocular pressure, mydriasis, cycloplegia, nasal congestion
GI: nausea, vomiting, constipation, bloating, dyspepsia, ileus, abdominal distention (in infants), dysphagia, dry mouth
GU: urinary retention, urinary hesitancy, impotence
Skin: decreased sweating, flushing, urticaria, dry skin
Other: thirst, anaphylaxis
Drug-drug. Amantadine, antiarrhythmics, anticholinergics, antihistamines, antiparkinsonian drugs, glutethimide, meperidine, muscle relaxants, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants: increased atropine effects
Antacids, antidiarrheals: decreased atropine absorption
Antimyasthenics: decreased intestinal motility
Cyclopropane: ventricular arrhythmias Ketoconazole, levodopa: decreased absorption of these drugs
Metoclopramide: decreased effect of atropine on GI motility
Potassium chloride wax-matrix tablets: increased severity of mucosal lesions
Drug-herbs. Jaborandi tree, pill-bearing spurge: decreased drug effect
Jimsonweed: changes in cardiovascular function
Squaw vine: reduced metabolic breakdown of drug
Drug-behaviors. Sun exposure: increased risk of photophobia
☞ Watch closely for signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis.
• Monitor heart rate for bradycardia or tachycardia.
• Evaluate fluid intake and output.
• Assess for urine retention or urinary hesitancy.
• Monitor for signs and symptoms of glaucoma.
☞ Instruct patient to immediately report allergic response.
☞ Inform patient that headache, eye pain, and blurred vision may signal glaucoma. Tell him to report these symptoms at once.
• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration, alertness, and vision.
• Encourage patient to establish an effective bedtime routine to minimize insomnia.
• Tell patient to apply pressure to inside corner of eye during instillation of ophthalmic solution and for 1 to 2 minutes afterward.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.