atrophy

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atrophy

 [at´ro-fe]
1. decrease in size of a normally developed organ or tissue; see also wasting.
2. to undergo or cause such a decrease. adj., adj atroph´ic.
acute yellow atrophy massive hepatic necrosis.
circumscribed cerebral atrophy pick's disease.
disuse atrophy atrophy of a tissue or organ as a result of inactivity or diminished function.
gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina a rare hereditary, slowly progressive atrophy of the choroid and pigment epithelium of the retina; inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
juvenile spinal muscular atrophy Kugelberg-Welander syndrome.
Leber's optic atrophy Leber's optic neuropathy.
lobar atrophy pick's disease.
myelopathic muscular atrophy muscular atrophy due to lesion of the spinal cord, as in spinal muscular atrophy.
olivopontocerebellar atrophy any of a group of progressive hereditary disorders involving degeneration of the cerebellar cortex, middle peduncles, ventral pontine surface, and olivary nuclei. They occur in the young to middle-aged and are characterized by ataxia, dysarthria, and tremors similar to those of parkinsonism.
peroneal atrophy (peroneal muscular atrophy) progressive neuromuscular atrophy.
progressive neuromuscular atrophy hereditary muscular atrophy beginning in the muscles supplied by the fibular (peroneal) nerves, progressing slowly to involve the muscles of the hands and arms. Called also peroneal or peroneal muscular atrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
senile atrophy the natural atrophy of tissues and organs occurring with advancing age.
spinal muscular atrophy progressive degeneration of the motor cells of the spinal cord, beginning usually in the small muscles of the hands, but in some cases (scapulohumeral type) in the upper arm and shoulder muscles, and progressing slowly to the leg muscles. Called also Aran-Duchenne disease, Cruveilhier's disease, and Duchenne's disease.
subacute yellow atrophy submassive necrosis of the liver associated with broad zones of necrosis, due to viral, toxic, or drug-induced hepatitis; it may have an acute course with death from liver failure occurring after several weeks, or clinical recovery may be associated with regeneration of the parenchymal cells.

at·ro·phy

(at'rō-fē),
A wasting of tissues, organs, or the entire body, as from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia, malnutrition, lessened function, or hormonal changes.
Synonym(s): atrophia
[G. atrophia, fr. a- priv. + trophē, nourishment]

atrophy

/at·ro·phy/ (at´ro-fe)
1. a wasting away; a diminution in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or part.
2. to undergo or cause atrophy.

acute yellow atrophy  the shrunken, yellow liver which is a complication, usually fatal, of fulminant hepatitis with massive hepatic necrosis.
Aran-Duchenne muscular atrophy  spinal muscular a.
bone atrophy  resorption of bone evident in both external form and internal density.
Duchenne-Aran muscular atrophy  spinal muscular a.
healed yellow atrophy  macronodular cirrhosis.
Leber's hereditary optic atrophy  see under neuropathy.
lobar atrophy  Pick's disease (1).
myelopathic muscular atrophy  muscular atrophy due to lesion of the spinal cord, as in spinal muscular atrophy.
olivopontocerebellar atrophy  any of a group of progressive hereditary disorders involving degeneration of the cerebellar cortex, middle peduncles, ventral pontine surface, and olivary nuclei. They occur in the young to middle-aged and are characterized by ataxia, dysarthria, and tremors similar to those of parkinsonism.
optic atrophy  atrophy of the optic disk due to degeneration of the nerve fibers of the optic nerve and optic tract.
peroneal atrophy , peroneal muscular atrophy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
physiologic atrophy  that affecting certain organs in all individuals as part of the normal aging process.
senile atrophy of skin  the mild atrophic changes in the dermis and epidermis that occur naturally with aging.
spinal muscular atrophy  progressive degeneration of the motor cells of the spinal cord, beginning usually in the small muscles of the hands, but in some cases (scapulohumeral type) in the upper arm and shoulder muscles, and progressing slowly to the leg muscles.
Sudeck's atrophy  post-traumatic osteoporosis.

atrophy

(ăt′rə-fē)
n. pl. atro·phies
1. A wasting or decrease in size of a body organ, tissue, or part owing to disease, injury, or lack of use: muscular atrophy of a person affected with paralysis.
2. A wasting away, deterioration, or diminution: intellectual atrophy.
v. atro·phied, atro·phying, atro·phies
v.tr.
To cause to wither or deteriorate; affect with atrophy.
v.intr.
To waste away; wither or deteriorate.

a·troph′ic (ā-trŏf′ĭk) adj.

atrophy

[at′rəfē]
Etymology: Gk, a + trophe, without nourishment
a wasting or decrease in size or physiological activity of a part of the body because of disease or other influences. A skeletal muscle may undergo atrophy as a result of lack of physical exercise or neurological or musculoskeletal disease. Cells of the brain and central nervous system may atrophy in old age because of restricted blood flow to those areas. See also abiotrophy, aging. atrophic, adj., atrophy, v.

atrophy

A reduction in tissue mass and cell substance, which can be physiological (normal) or pathological (abnormal).

Mechanism
Atrophy is not completely understood, but largely attributed to decreased protein production and increased protein degradation (e.g., via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway).

atrophy

Wasting away; a ↓ in size of a cell, tissue, organ or part, due to defective or failed nutrition. See Blue atrophy, Brown atrophy, Disuse atrophy, Fat pad atrophy, Gastric atrophy, Geographic atrophy, Group atrophy, Multiple system atrophy, Pseudoatrophy of brain, Spinal muscle atrophy, White atrophy. Cf Dystrophy Gynecology A thinning of the ♀ genital mucosa due to ↓ estrogen in menopause Appearance Smooth, thin epithelium, prominent blood vessels, ↑ risk of trauma DiffDx Severe dysplasia, invasive CA Management Exogenous HRT.

at·ro·phy

(at'rŏ-fē)
A wasting of tissues, organs, or the entire body, as from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia, malnutrition, lessened function, or hormonal changes.
Synonym(s): atrophia.
[G. atrophia, fr. a- priv. + trophē, nourishment]

atrophy

Wasting and loss of substance due to cell degeneration and death. This may be a natural ageing process or it may be due to simple disuse. From the Greek atrophia , hunger or want of food.

atrophy

the reduction in size of an organ or tissue mass, often after disuse.

Atrophy

A wasting away of a tissue or organ, often because of insufficient nutrition.

atrophy

reduction in the bulk of a body tissue or organ; occurs in muscles during prolonged bed-rest or following damage to their motor nerves (disuse atrophy) and in diseases of muscles themselves.

atrophy

tissue wasting, secondary to pressure, ischaemia, malnutrition, decreased function, hormonal changes, lack of use, or as an age-related phenomenon

atrophy,

n shrinking or wasting of a body part as a result of lack of use or disease.

atrophy 

A wasting, shrinking or degeneration of an organ or tissue due to malnutrition, poor blood circulation, loss of nerve supply, disuse, disease or hormonal changes.
choroidal atrophy A group of ocular degenerations of the choroid. These lesions have been grouped according to the area involved and the topographical pattern noted. Classical disease states include gyrate atrophy as well as choroideremia. These lesions are often inherited, demonstrating both autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance patterns. See choroideremia.
gyrate atrophy An autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial matrix enzyme ornithine keto-acid aminotransferase that catalyzes several amino acid pathways. The signs consist of circular degenerative patches of chorioretinal atrophy beginning near the equator during the teenage years and gradually increasing in number and enlarging to form a whole area with a scalloped border. There is a gradual loss of the visual field, axial myopia, nyctalopia and eventually central vision becomes impaired. Treatment includes pyridoxine (vitamin B6) supplement and arginine-restricted diet.
optic atrophy Degeneration of the optic nerve fibres characterized by a pallor of the optic disc which may appear greyish, yellowish or white. This condition leads to a loss of visual acuity or changes in the visual fields or both. The change in colour of the disc is due to a loss of the normal capillarity of the disc and to a deposition of fibrin or glial tissue which replaces the nerve fibres. 1. Primary or simple optic atrophy. The disc margins are well defined and usually the lamina cribrosa is unobscured. The colour is pale pink to white. Causes include compression by tumours and Leber's hereditary optic atrophy. 2. Secondary optic atrophy. The difference with the former is that in this condition there is evidence of preceding oedema or inflammation. The margins of the disc appear blurred and glial proliferation is present over the surface of the disc, thus obscuring the lamina cribrosa. The colour is yellowish to grey. Papilloedema gives rise to secondary optic atrophy. See open-angle glaucoma; Leber's hereditary optic atrophy; Foster Kennedy syndrome.

at·ro·phy

(at'rŏ-fē)
A wasting of tissues, organs, or the entire body, as from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia, malnutrition, lessened function, or hormonal changes.
[G. atrophia, fr. a- priv. + trophē, nourishment]

atrophy (at´rōfē),

n/v a progressive, acquired decrease in the size of a normally developed cell, tissue, or organ. Atrophy may result from a decrease in cell size, number of cells, or both.
atrophy, adipose
n an atrophy resulting from a reduction in fatty tissue.
atrophy, alveolar,
n a depletion of the size of the alveolar process of the jaws from disuse, overuse, or pathologic disturbance of the bone.
atrophy, bone,
n 1. the bone resorption internally (in density) and externally (in form) (e.g., of residual ridges).
n 2. a loss of bone substance or volume. Atrophy of bone ordinarily occurs without a corresponding change in the volume or external dimensions of bone, but the mass of bone tissue may be reduced by as much as 75%. The internal architecture of the bone gradually becomes attenuated and finally disappears. Atrophied bone is brittle and has a more spongy consistency than normal bone. In cross-section the cortex is thin, and the periosteal surface is smooth and unchanged, but the intramedullary substance is composed of a yellow, fatty, cancellous bone tissue. Bone atrophy may be systemic, regional, or local.
atrophy, central papillary,
n a lesion on the central dorsum of the tongue, possibly due to a fungal infection, not a developmental disorder; it may be raised or flat. Formerly called
median rhomboid glossitis.
atrophy, diffuse alveolar,
atrophy, facial,
n the failure of facial development. If it is bilateral, it may produce brachygnathia; unilateral types, although rare, are more common than the bilateral type. Causes include physical injury, neurovascular disease, and paralysis.
atrophy, gerodontic mucosal
n an oral degeneration in which the tissue of the epithelium in the oral cavity thins and loses some of its vascular structure and elasticity.
atrophy, muscular,
n a wasting of muscle tissue, especially resulting from lack of use. There are numerous causes for simple atrophy of muscle, such as chronic malnutrition, immobilization, and denervation.
atrophy, of disuse,
n an atrophy resulting from a lack of function of a tissue, organ, or body part.
atrophy, periodontal,
n the quantitative degenerative changes that occur in the periodontium of a tooth as a result of disease or disuse. When a tooth loses its antagonist, osteoporotic changes in the supporting bone, an afunctional change in the direction of periodontal fibers, and a narrowing of the periodontal ligament.
atrophy, postmenopausal,
n a thinning of the oral mucosa after menopause.
atrophy, pressure,
n the tissue destruction and reduction in size as a consequence of prolonged or continued pressure on a local area or group of cells.
atrophy, pressure, by epithelial attachment,
n a theoretical type of atrophy. The theory, advanced to explain destruction of gingival fibers during gingival inflammation, states that gingival fiber degeneration is produced by pressure exerted by the proliferating pocket epithelium. It is now generally conceded that proteolytic substances produced in the tissues during inflammation are responsible for gingival fiber destruction; subsequently, the epithelium can proliferate apically.
atrophy, senile,
n the atrophy or diminution of all tissues characteristic of advanced age.

atrophy

1. decrease in size of a normally developed organ or tissue; wasting.
2. to undergo or cause atrophy.

disuse atrophy
atrophy of local musculature due to failure to use a part of the body, due usually to pain. Is separate from neurogenic atrophy when nerve damage causes atrophy from both disuse and denervation.
iris atrophy
occurs with aging, particularly in Siamese cats and miniature schnauzers and poodles; may be secondary to trauma, recurrent uveitis and chronic glaucoma.
mammary atrophy
the terminal stage of chronic mastitis; palpation establishes that little mammary tissue remains and inflammatory fibrous tissue has subsided.
Enlarge picture
Blind quarter (atrophy) in a cow following mastitis. By permission from Blowey RW, Weaver AD, Diseases and Disorders of Cattle, Mosby, 1997
optic atrophy
atrophy of the optic nerve; may occur with trauma, prolonged inflammatory diseases of the eye, and retinal degeneration.
retinal atrophy
see progressive retinal atrophy.
serous atrophy
in cachexia there is mobilization of depot fat and lipid vacuoles are progressively reduced in size and replaced by proteinaceous fluid which converts the fat depots to gelatinous masses of serous atrophy.
villous atrophy
a common finding in a variety of intestinal diseases of animals, including viral, bacterial and protozoal infections, parasitism, hypersensitivity reactions in the bowel and alimentary lymphosarcoma. Malabsorption and diarrhea result. An idiopathic, possibly immune-mediated, villous atrophy occurs in dogs.