astrocyte


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astrocyte

 [as´tro-sīt]
a neuroglial cell of ectodermal origin, characterized by fibrous or protoplasmic processes; collectively called astroglia or macroglia.
 Astrocyte in association with a blood vessel. From Dorland's, 2000.

as·tro·cyte

(as'trō-sīt),
One of the large neuroglia cells of nervous tissue.
See also: neuroglia.
[G. astron, star, + kytos, hollow (cell)]

astrocyte

/as·tro·cyte/ (as´tro-sīt) a neuroglial cell of ectodermal origin, characterized by fibrous, protoplasmic, or plasmatofibrous processes. Collectively called astroglia.
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Astrocyte in association with a blood vessel.

astrocyte

(ăs′trə-sīt′)
n.
A star-shaped cell, especially a neuroglial cell of nervous tissue.

as′tro·cyt′ic (-sĭt′ĭk) adj.

astrocyte

[as′trōsīt′]
Etymology: Gk, aster + kytos, cell
a large, star-shaped neuroglial cell with many branches, found in certain tissues of the nervous system.
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Astrocyte

as·tro·cyte

(as'trō-sīt, astrŏ-sīt)
One of the large neuroglia cells of nervous tissue.
See also: neuroglia
Synonym(s): astroglia, macroglia.
[G. astēr, star, + kytos, chamber, cell]
Enlarge picture
ASTROCYTES

astrocyte

(as'tro-sit?) [ astro- + -cyte, cell]
A common, asterisk-shaped glial cell with many radiating cell processes. Astrocytes are neuroectodermal cells that begin as radial glia that later mature into multipolar cells. Astrocytes are spread homogeneously throughout the central nervous system and each astocyte occupies its own compartment of neuropil. The cell processes of an astrocyte are covered with "leaflets" of cytoplasm that contact axons, synaptic structures, blood vessels, and neighboring glia. Touching astrocytes are electrically coupled and can propagate calcium potentials and within its microdomain of neuropil, each astrocyte regulates the extracellular concentration of certain molecules, including neurotransmitters. In areas of injury, astrocytes can proliferate.
Synonym: astroglial cell See: illustrationastrocytic (as?tro-sit'ik), adjective

Cajal,

Santiago, Spanish histologist and Nobel laureate, 1852-1934.
Cajal astrocyte stain - a method for demonstrating astrocytes by impregnation in a solution containing gold chloride and mercuric chloride.
Cajal cell - Synonym(s): horizontal cell of Cajal
Cajal formol ammonium bromide solution
Cajal gold-sublimate method
Cajal uranium silver method
horizontal cell of Cajal - a small fusiform cell found in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex with its long axis placed horizontally. Synonym(s): astrocyte; Cajal cell
interstitial nucleus of Cajal - a group of neurons believed to be involved in the integration of head and eye movements. Synonym(s): interstitial nucleus

Deiters,

Otto F.K., German anatomist, 1834-1863.
Deiters cells - the supporting cells of the organ of Corti; one of the large neuroglia cells of nervous tissue. Synonym(s): astrocyte; phalangeal cell
Deiters nucleus - lateral vestibular nucleus.
Deiters terminal frames - platelike structures in the organ of Corti uniting the outer phalangeal cells with Hensen cells.

neuroglia

non-neuronal cells located within the central and peripheral nervous systems

as·tro·cyte

(as'trō-sīt, astrŏ-sīt)
One of the large neuroglial cells of neural tissue.
See: neuroglia
[G. astēr, star, + kytos, chamber, cell]

astrocyte

a neuroglial cell of ectodermal origin, characterized by fibrous or protoplasmic processes; collectively called astroglia or macroglia.

gemistocytic astrocyte
a plump astrocyte which results from injury to nervous tissue. Usually an extensive area is involved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The protocol offers a faster, more effective way to obtain astrocytes for brain research that could yield breakthroughs for treatments of such diverse conditions as stroke, Alzheimer's or psychiatric disorders.
Using a genome-wide enhanced circular chromosomal conformation capture (e4C) technique to investigate inter-chromosomal interactions, (41) we have recently demonstrated that several genes expressed during astrocyte differentiation were specifically associated with Gfap, raising the possibility that gene clustering may play some roles in transcriptional regulation during NSCs differentiation.
amp;nbsp;Researchers at the Marche Polytechnic University in Italy, led by Michele Bellesi, found that a type of cells in the brain, called astrocytes, go into overdrive in mice that are sleep deprived.
Such transgenic mice have proven useful for lineage tracing and monitoring dynamic changes in astrocyte morphology during responses to physiological and pathological conditions (Galbreath et al.
The decline in astrocyte activation with disease progression is another mystery, she said.
Inflammatory changes in the form of higher levels of brain astrocytes are thought to be a very early indicator of disease onset," explains principal investigator Professor Agneta Nordberg at the Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Center for Alzheimer Research at KarolinskaInstitutet.
Augmenting astrocyte extrasynaptic glutamate sequestration by increasing the activity of astrocytic glutamate transporter GLT-1 has been effective at decreasing glutamate excitotoxicity, thereby indirectly maintaining mitochondrial function [38, 39].
Smith and his colleagues dribbled glutamate--a chemical messenger commonly used by neurons--into a dish containing astrocytes modified to glow when calcium levels go up.
Pre and post treatment of TRF and [alpha]-TCP upon glutamate toxicity on astrocyte cell population in cell cycle phases.
In primary cortical astrocyte cells, LPNS reduced [H.
Chronic treatment with lithium increased bcl-2 protein levels significantly in the astrocyte (175%; P<0.
Possibly in the early phase of brain injury, the immunoreactivity of GFAP is a key marker of astrocyte hyperactivity and tissue damage.