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7) In the public exchange between Horace Greeley and Henry Raymond over social reform in the fall and winter of 1846-47, the more conservative Raymond accused the associationists of naivete about human selfishness: "While men [.
Unlike many utopians, including Noyes, the Associationists were not truly "countercultural.
First, both Noyes and the Associationists could agree that practical, economic factors played an important role in the failure of Associations--though Noyes rightly insisted that this role was not ultimately determinative.
Even for relatively freethinking Associationists, the ultimate lesson to be drawn from failure was that of resurrection.
The first point of agreement between Noyes and the Associationists was that the Associations had made a lot of practical mistakes.
The discipline of farming, even on poor soil, allowed Associationists to achieve the balance of mental and manual labor that was for many a primary attraction of life in community.
Indeed, after the wave of failed Associations in 1844, the remaining Associationists made concerted efforts to clean up their financial affairs.
Teaching based on associationist theory employs a form of recitation in which teachers ask narrowly focused questions designed to trigger correct responses with little extended thinking.
They will still be based on an associationist psychology that several decades of experience have proved to be of little value in improving education for urban minority students.
In contrast to the associationist theory, constructivist learning theory underscores how current mental schemata are reshaped, expanded, and deepened on the basis of interactions with new learning.
The point is that a great many of the standards required by outside agencies or testing programs need not -- and should not -- be taught on the basis of an associationist psychology wedded to a pedagogy of poverty, although admittedly this entails tradeoffs and some necessary compromising with respect to constructivist teaching for depth of understanding.
It is imperative that urban students be freed from the associationist curriculum and pedagogy that together perpetuate their disenfranchisement.
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