Although Epictetus sometimes seems to place the impression itself as the trigger of our actions (5), the distinction between having an impression and assenting to it is crucial, not only for Epictetus' orthodoxy, but also for his entire pedagogical enterprise, because as we shall see, the possibility of adopting the critical attitude defining the first step in the road to moral and epistemic improvement lies in human beings' capacity to refrain from assenting to a given impression.
Furthermore, the process of assenting to an impression (12) is not something that necessarily takes place within an instant, and it is precisely the distinctive feature of rational beings to be able to refrain from immediately (euthus) assenting to an impression (13): while the rest of living beings operate in a fully automatic manner, responding to external stimuli in a predictable and generic way, the mental operations of a rational being are mediated by acts of assent that express their epistemic and moral disposition at the same time.
Naaman-Zauderer sees this deontological view of rationality as offering a solution to the much discussed problem of the Cartesian circle: even if Descartes' argument is circular and even if our clear and distinct ideas might indeed be false, we would not be considered irrational for assenting to them.
An analysis of the latter scenario unveils the source of the bindingness of our epistemic duty: in assenting to a clear and distinct idea we experience our will as fully unified with our intellect and as the only source of our inclination to assent; intellectual necessity and intellectual freedom are now one and the same.
to that doctrine as part of the Appeals Court panel, John Roberts has endorsed executive despotism as a "wartime" necessity--in a war that may last for a generation or more.
Do they really want a one-party state with no opposition, no dissenting voices, and universal, knee-jerk, assenting
responses to the ruling party?
too firmly, I decided it would be prudent to learn more.