The cyanobacteria were obtained from seawater (5 strains), brackish water (5 strains) and the reef organisms: sea sponges (Cinachyrella 2 strains; Haliclona--1 strain), zoanthid P variabilis (1 strain), ascidian
(2 strains) and coral S.
Similar to most other chordates, ascidian
hemocytes are continually renewed to compensate for cell death and external sources of loss (Ermak, 1982).
Increasing accumulation of biofouling organisms such as ascidians
within aquaculture sites is a growing problem (Adams et al.
However, it may be hard to determine whether the "true" default fate of the ascidian
ectoderm is different from that of the Xenopus embryo.
7% dw of protein in the solitary ascidian
Microcosmus exasperatus, a value similar to our estimate of total protein in P.
ISHII (1985): <<Trypsin inhibitor in the hemolymph of a solitary ascidian
, Halocynthia roretzi.
from its ascidian
host, estimations of its growth rate have necessarily
species require a hard substrate for attachment.
associated with a newly described ascidian
from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica (Decapoda, Natantia, Pontoniinae).
Limited dispersal and proximity-dependent mating success in the colonial ascidian
Female control of paternity in the internally fertilizing compound ascidian
1979, McClintock and Vernon 1990), ascidian
larvae (Young and Bingham 1987, Lindquist et al.