Prevalence (per 10,000 live births) and estimated average annual number of spina bifida and anencephaly cases, by period and prenatal ascertainment
status--19 population-based birth defects surveillance programs, United States, 1995-1996 and 1999-2011 * Pre- Post- fortification fortification Type of case / Prenatal ascertainment
status 1995-1996 1999-2000 Anencephaly Programs with prenatal ascertainment
([dagger]) Prevalence 4.
Of these confirmed cases, 751 were confirmed by oral fluid testing plus or minus other methods and 591 (24% of all cases) were confirmed by oral fluid testing only, which increased laboratory ascertainment
of pertussis by 32% (591 confirmed by oral fluid only/1,852 overall [confirmed by other methods [+ or -] oral fluid testing]), from 6% in <1 year to 124% in 5-9 years, assuming that these cases would not have been confirmed by other laboratory methods in the absence of oral fluid testing.
methods used by birth defects programs include active, passive, and active-passive (hybrid).
As part of its ascertainment
report, the Cable Advisory Committee called for having a countywide public access channel.
was standardized based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and subject to rigorous quality control procedures (Van Naarden Braun et al.
litigation expenses, resources devoted to ascertainment
Until we settle this issue of ascertainment
bias in this situation, we cannot be certain that in utero exposure to paroxetine is associated with an increased risk of cardiac malformations.
Despite the fact that we are now in 2009 and many decades following the exposition and quantitative documentation of both the nature and extent of the aforementioned biases, we still see papers in prominent journals published without a word about ascertainment
It is fitting, then, that Kellner considers it "necessary to examine further the causation of perceptual ascertainment
, even if this in textual terms unfortunately turns out to be more difficult than might be expected" (p.
Improved death ascertainment
can enable more accurate estimates of HIV/AIDS prevalence and a more effective allocation of HIV prevention and treatment resources," the study's authors wrote.
However, a valid contract must generally have terms which are reasonably capable of ascertainment
The authors cautioned that their register-based study should be followed up with population-based ascertainment
of both diseases.