artificial selection


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Related to artificial selection: Directional selection

ar·ti·fi·cial se·lec·tion

interference by humans with natural selection by purposeful breeding of animals or plants of specific genotype or phenotype to produce a strain with desired characteristics; for example, breeding of dairy cattle for high milk production.

artificial selection

n.
Human intervention in animal or plant reproduction or survival to allow only individuals with desirable traits to reproduce.

artificial selection

the process by which the genotypes of successive plant and animal generations are determined through controlled breeding. Compare natural selection. See also eugenics.

ar·ti·fi·cial se·lec·tion

(ahr'ti-fish'ăl sĕ-lek'shŭn)
Interference with natural selection by purposeful breeding of animals or plants of specific genotype or phenotype to produce a strain with desired characteristics.

artificial selection

a SELECTION process in which man chooses particular organisms from which to breed, based upon their PHENOTYPE, so aiming to alter the average GENOTYPE and phenotype of the resulting progeny (a form of DIRECTIONAL SELECTION). This process is carried out by plant and animal breeders whose job is to enhance certain features of the organisms with which they work, e.g. greater resistance to root rot in tomatoes, or higher milk yield in cattle. Such selection depends upon the presence of GENETIC VARIABILITY in the chosen population. See also HERITABILITY.

selection

1. choosing the individual units to be included in a sample. See also random selection.
2. choosing the animals to be retained for breeding purposes; genetic selection.

artificial selection
selection based on human decisions.
selection coefficient
proportionate reduction in the average genetic contribution made by a specific genotype, relative to the contribution made by another genotype. Denoted by s.
selection criteria
the animal characteristic which is used in a selection program.
selection differential
a measure of the gain achieved by selection; the phenotypic superiority of selected individuals, compared to the population from which they were selected.
selection index
a single overall estimate of the patient's true breeding value obtained from as many sources of information as are available.
individual selection
selection on the results of performance testing of the subject.
selection intensity
the superiority of the individuals selected for breeding, relative to the population from which they were selected.
selection limit
the situation in which the entire population is homozygous for the same set of favorable genes; called also selection plateau.
selection/mutation balance
when the rate of removal of a gene from the population by selection equals the rate at which mutations occur.
selection plateau
see selection limit.
selection program
the method used to select individuals from a population to be used for breeding. Usually includes nomination of the characters to be selected, the optimum size of the population in which the program is to operate, the intensity of selection available, the accuracy of the selection procedures, lengths of the generations in the species, the target rate of response.
References in periodicals archive ?
Therefore, this cluster appears to have an important molecular role in controlling the function of signal trafficking, reflecting artificial selection processes driving them into a tight gene cluster for efficacy of the associated function.
Thus, if correlational selection were the only factor creating a negative genetic correlation between defense and tolerance, I should not have observed a correlated response of tolerance to artificial selection for defense.
Thus, artificial selection experiments have great potential to assess pleiotropic effects.
This strong artificial selection will increase the frequency of favorable alleles at the loci affecting meat quality traits in the meat production breeds.
Likewise, understanding selection limit theory and the effects of genetic drift and inbreeding depression on symmetry of response to artificial selection (Chapter 4) requires a background in the effects of finite population size on the mean and variance of quantitative traits, which is not covered until Chapter 8.
Wade formed groups of N = 16 flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) and treated population size after 37 d as a group-level phenotypic character in an artificial selection experiment that would have been mundane if it had been conducted at the individual level.
The unique evolutionary history of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), domesticated over 14,000 years ago, includes artificial selection, population bottlenecks, and inbreeding, which has resulted in over 400 genetically distinct breeds.
In addition, these results will have a direct impact in informing selective and breeding practices of domesticated animals and plants, to balance the need of preserving genetic variability while allowing for an efficient genetic and phenotypic response to artificial selection.
Prince was among a group of players who sent a letter to CSA in 2007 demanding a quick death for artificial selection policies.
the presence and absence of awns) most likely result from natural or artificial selection.
411; Kimura 1983), its greatest challenge has come from experimental studies of responses to artificial selection and to human disturbance in the wild.