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Etymology: L, artificiosum, skillfully made
a plastic or rubber device that can be inserted into the upper or lower respiratory tract to facilitate ventilation or the removal of secretions.
1. the passage by which air enters and leaves the lungs.
2. a mechanical device used for securing unobstructed respiration during general anesthesia or other occasions in which the patient is not ventilating or exchanging gases properly. Includes an endotracheal tube and a tracheostomy tube.
endotracheal or tracheostomy tubes.
in the unanesthetized animal is usually caused by vomitus or laryngeal spasm due to foreign material in the larynx. In the nonintubated anesthetized animal, it is caused by caudal displacement of the tongue and epiglottis, accumulation of mucus, saliva and blood in the pharynx or laryngeal spasm resulting from that accumulation. In the intubated animal, faulty placement or functioning of the endotracheal tube or kinking of it can cause obstruction of the airway. The signs of obstruction are deep, asphyxial respirations, struggling and great agitation in the conscious animal. Deeply anesthetized animals simply show a decline in respiratory efficiency.
the resistance to airflow through the respiratory tree and any addition to the airway, such as the endotracheal tube and connectors in a closed circuit anesthetic machine.