ankle joint

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joint

 [joint]
the site of the junction or union of two or more bones of the body; its primary function is to provide motion and flexibility to the frame of the body. Some are immovable, such as the sutures where segments of bone are fused together in the skull. Others, such as those between the vertebrae, are gliding joints and have limited motion. However, most joints allow considerable motion. The most common type are the synovial joints, which have a complex internal structure, composed not only of ends of bones but also of ligaments, cartilage, the articular capsule, the synovial membrane, and sometimes bursae.
acromioclavicular joint the point at which the clavicle joins with the acromion.
ankle joint the joint between the foot and the leg; see ankle.
arthrodial joint gliding joint.
ball-and-socket joint a synovial joint in which the rounded or spheroidal surface of one bone (the “ball”) moves within a cup-shaped depression (the “socket”) on another bone, allowing greater freedom of movement than any other type of joint. See illustration. Called also polyaxial or spheroidal joint.
bicondylar joint a condylar joint with a meniscus between the articular surfaces, as in the temporomandibular joint.
cartilaginous joint a type of synarthrosis in which the bones are united by cartilage, providing slight flexible movement; the two types are synchondrosis and symphysis.
composite joint (compound joint) a type of synovial joint in which more than two bones are involved.
condylar joint (condyloid joint) one in which an ovoid head of one bone moves in an elliptical cavity of another, permitting all movements except axial rotation; this type is found at the wrist, connecting the radius and carpal bones, and at the base of the index finger. See illustration.
diarthrodial joint synovial joint.
elbow joint the synovial joint between the humerus, ulna, and radius. See also elbow.
ellipsoidal joint condylar joint.
facet j's the articulations of the vertebral column.
fibrous joint a joint in which the union of bony elements is by continuous intervening fibrous tissue, which makes little motion possible; the three types are suture, syndesmosis, and gomphosis. Called also immovable or synarthrodial joint and synarthrosis.
flail joint an unusually mobile joint, such as results when joint resection is done to relieve pain.
glenohumeral joint the synovial joint formed by the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula. Called also humeral joint and shoulder joint.
gliding joint a synovial joint in which the opposed surfaces are flat or only slightly curved, so that the bones slide against each other in a simple and limited way. The intervertebral joints are this type, and many of the small bones of the wrist and ankle also meet in gliding joints. Called also arthrodial joint and plane joint.
hinge joint a synovial joint that allows movement in only one plane, forward and backward. Examples are the elbow and the interphalangeal joints of the fingers. The jaw is primarily a hinge joint but it can also move somewhat from side to side. The knee and ankle joints are hinge joints that also allow some rotary movement. See illustration. Called also ginglymus.
hip joint the synovial joint formed at the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip. See illustration at hip.
humeral joint glenohumeral joint.
immovable joint fibrous j.
knee joint the compound joint between the femur, patella, and tibia.
pivot joint a synovial joint in which one bone pivots within a bony or an osseoligamentous ring, allowing only rotary movement; an example is the joint between the first and second cervical vertebrae (the atlas and axis). See illustration. Called also rotary or trochoid joint.
plane joint gliding joint.
polyaxial joint ball-and-socket joint.
rotary joint pivot joint.
sacroiliac joint the joint between the sacrum and ilium in the lower back; see also sacroiliac joint.
saddle joint a synovial joint whose movement resembles that of a rider on horseback, who can shift in several directions at will; there is a saddle joint at the base of the thumb, so that the thumb is more flexible and complex than the other fingers but is also more difficult to treat if injured.
shoulder joint humeral joint.
simple joint a type of synovial joint in which only two bones are involved.
spheroidal joint ball-and-socket joint.
synarthrodial joint fibrous j.
synovial joint a specialized joint that permits more or less free movement, the union of the bony elements being surrounded by an articular capsule enclosing a cavity lined by synovial membrane. Called also articulation and diarthrosis. A capillary network in the synovial membrane provides nutrients and synovial fluid to nourish and lubricate the joint space. Strong fibrous bands or cords (ligaments) give strength and security to synovial joints. The majority of the body's joints are of this type. They are divided into five types according to structure and motion: ball and socket, gliding, saddle, hinge, and pivot.
Joints.
trochoid joint pivot joint.
temporomandibular joint (TMJ) a bicondylar joint formed by the head of the mandible and the mandibular fossa, and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone. See also temporomandibular joint disorder.

an·kle joint

[TA]
a hinge synovial joint between the tibia and fibula above and the talus below.

ankle joint

Etymology: AS, ancleow + L, jungere, to join
a synovial hinge joint between the leg and the foot. The rounded malleolar prominences on each side of the joint form a mortise for the upper surface of the talus.
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Ankle joint of the right foot: medial view

an·kle joint

(ang'kĕl joynt) [TA]
A hinge synovial joint that is placed between the tibia and fibula above and with the talus below.
Synonym(s): ankle (1) , mortise joint, talocrural joint.

joint

(joynt) [Fr. jointe, fr L. junctio, a joining]
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TYPES OF JOINTS
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TYPES OF JOINTS
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TYPES OF JOINTS
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TYPES OF JOINTS
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TYPES OF JOINTS
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TYPES OF JOINTS
The place where two or more bones meet. Some joints are fixed or immobile attachments of bones; other joints allow the bones to move along each other. A joint usually has a thin, smooth articular cartilage on each bony surface and is enclosed by a joint capsule of fibrous connective tissue. A joint is classified as immovable (synarthrodial), slightly movable (amphiarthrodial), or freely movable (diarthrodial). A synarthrodial joint is one in which the two bones are separated only by an intervening membrane, such as the cranial sutures. An amphiarthrodial joint is one having a fibrocartilaginous disk between the bony surfaces (symphysis), such as the symphysis pubis; or one with a ligament uniting the two bones (syndesmosis), such as the tibiofibular articulation. A diarthrodial joint is one in which the adjoining bone ends are covered with a thin cartilaginous sheet and joined by a joint capsule lined by a synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid. Synonym: arthrosis (1) See: illustration

Movement

Joints are also grouped according to their motion: ball and socket (enarthrodial); hinge (ginglymoid); condyloid; pivot (trochoid); gliding (arthrodial); and saddle joint.

Joints can move in four ways: gliding, in which one bony surface glides on another without angular or rotatory movement; angulation, occurring only between long bones, increasing or decreasing the angle between the bones; circumduction, occurring in joints composed of the head of a bone and an articular cavity, the long bone describing a series of circles, the whole forming a cone; and rotation, in which a bone moves about a central axis without moving from this axis. Angular movement, if it occurs forward or backward, is called flexion or extension, respectively; away from the body, abduction; and toward the median plane of the body, adduction.

Because of their location and constant use, joints are prone to stress, injury, and inflammation. The main diseases affecting the joints are rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and gout. Injuries comprise contusions, sprains, dislocations, and penetrating wounds.

acromioclavicular joint

Abbreviation: AC joint
A gliding or plane joint between the acromion and the acromial end of the clavicle.

amphidiarthrodial joint

A joint that is both ginglymoid and arthrodial.

ankle joint

Ankle.

arthrodial joint

Diarthrosis permitting a gliding motion. Synonym: gliding joint

ball-and-socket joint

A joint in which the round end of one bone fits into the cavity of another bone. Synonym: enarthrodial joint; multiaxial joint; polyaxial joint

biaxial joint

A joint with two chief movement axes at right angles to each other.

bilocular joint

A joint separated into two sections by interarticular cartilage.

bleeders' joint

Hemorrhage into joint space in hemophiliacs. Synonym: hemophilic joint

Budin joint

See: Budin joint

cartilaginous joint

A joint with cartilage between the bones.

Charcot joint

See: Charcot, Jean M.

Chopart joint

See: Chopart, François

Clutton joint

See: Clutton joint

cochlear joint

A hinge joint permitting lateral motion. Synonym: spiral joint

compound joint

A joint made up of several bones.

condylar joint

Ellipsoid joint.

condyloid joint

A joint permitting all forms of angular movement except axial rotation.

cracking joint

The sound produced by forcible movement of a joint by contracting the muscles that contract or extend a joint, esp. the metacarpophalangeal joints. The cause is not known.
See: crepitation

craniomandibular joint

Either of the encapsulated, double synovial joints between the condylar processes of the mandible and the temporal bones of the cranium. The double synovial joints are separated by an articular disk and function as an upper gliding joint and a lower modified hinge or ginglymoid joint.
Synonym: temporomandibular joint See:

diarthrodial joint

A joint characterized by the presence of a cavity within the capsule separating the bones, permitting considerable freedom of movement.

dry joint

Arthritis of the chronic villous type.

elbow joint

The hinge joint between the humerus and the ulna.

ellipsoid joint

A joint with two axes of motion through the same bone.
Synonym: condylar joint

enarthrodial joint

Ball-and-socket joint.

facet joint

Any of the zygapophyseal joints of the vertebral column between the articulating facets of each pair of vertebrae.

false joint

A false joint formation after a fracture.

fibrous joint

Any of the joints connected by fibrous tissue.

flail joint

A joint that is extremely relaxed, the distal portion of the limb being almost beyond the control of the will.

ginglymoid joint

A synovial joint having only forward and backward motion, as a hinge. Synonym: ginglymus See: hinge joint

gliding joint

Arthrodial joint.

hemophilic joint

Bleeders' joint.

hinge joint

a synovial joint in which two bones flex and extend in only one plane, usually because side (collateral) ligaments limit the direction of motion, e.g., elbow joint.

hip joint

A synovial ball-and-socket joint in which the head of the femur fits into the acetabulum of the hip bone. More than seven separate ligaments hold the joint together and restrict its movements.

immovable joint

Synarthrosis.

intercarpal joint

Any of the articulations formed by the carpal bones in relation to one another.

irritable joint

A recurrent joint inflammation of unknown cause.

knee joint

The joint formed by the femur, patella, and tibia.

midcarpal joint

A joint separating the navicular, lunate, and triangular bones from the distal row of carpal bones.

movable joint

A slightly movable or freely movable joint, amphiarthrodial and diarthrodial, respectively.

multiaxial joint

Ball-and-socket joint.

pivot joint

A joint that permits rotation of a bone, the joint being formed by a pivot-like process that turns within a ring, or by a ringlike structure that turns on a pivot. Synonym: rotary joint; trochoid joint

plane joint

A synovial joint between bone surfaces, in which only gliding movements are possible.

polyaxial joint

Ball-and-socket joint.

joint protection

A technique for minimizing stress on joints, including proper body mechanics and the avoidance of continuous weight-bearing or deforming postures.

receptive joint

Saddle joint.

rotary joint

Pivot joint.

sacroiliac joint

The articulation between the sacrum and the ilium of the hip bone. Joint movement is limited because of interlocking of the articular surfaces.

saddle joint

A joint in which the opposing surfaces are reciprocally concavoconvex. Synonym: receptive joint

shoulder joint

The ball-and-socket joint between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula.

simple joint

A joint composed of two bones.

spheroid joint

A multiaxial joint with spheroid surfaces.

spiral joint

Cochlear joint.

sternoclavicular joint

The joint space between the sternum and the medial extremity of the clavicle.

stiff joint

A joint with reduced mobility.

subtalar joint

Any of the three articular surfaces on the inferior surface of the talus.

sutural joint

An articulation between two cranial or facial bones.

synarthrodial joint

Synarthrosis.

synovial joint

A joint in which the articulating surfaces are separated by synovial fluid.
See: joint for illus

talocrural joint

Ankle.

tarsometatarsal joint

A joint composed of three arthrodial joints, the bones of which articulate with the bases of the metatarsal bones.

temporomandibular joint

Craniomandibular joint.

trochoid joint

Pivot joint.

ulnomeniscal-triquetral joint

The functional articulation of the distal ulna, articular disk, and triquetrum. The disk may subluxate following injury or with arthritis and block supination of the forearm.

uniaxial joint

A joint moving on a single axis.

unilocular joint

A joint with a single cavity.

ankle joint

the synovial hinge joint between the lower ends of the tibia and fibula, and the talus, where its saddle-shaped upper surface lies in the socket flanked at the sides by the medial and lateral malleoli. Strengthened by ligaments between these three bones, and also between them and the calcaneum (heel bone). See also anterior talofibular ligament.

ankle joint

hinge joint between inferior margins of tibia and fibula, their distal expansions (medial and lateral malleoli) and superior margin (trochlear surface) of the talus (Table 1)
Table 1: Joint axes of rotation within the foot
Joint (axis orientation)Primary movement about axis of rotationOrientation of axis of rotation to body planes
HorizontalFrontalSagittal
Ankle (lateral/plantar/posterior to medial/dorsal/anterior)Dorsiflexion; plantarflexion85°
Subtalar (lateral/plantar/posterior to medial/dorsal/anterior)Supination; pronation42°48°16°
Midtarsal (lateral/plantar/posterior to medial/dorsal/anterior)Oblique axis
Supination; pronation
52°57°
Longitudinal axis
Inversion; eversion
15°
First ray (medial/plantar/posterior to lateral/dorsal/anterior)Dorsiflexion with inversion; plantarflexion with eversion12°45°45°
Fifth ray (lateral/plantar/posterior to medial/dorsal/anterior)Dorsiflexion with eversion; plantarflexion with inversion20°55°70°

Patient discussion about ankle joint

Q. after breaking both my tib and fib in my ankle - my joint has now seized up completely - is this a normal occu I have been told my ankle koint may never work again - has this ever happened to anyone else - and if so, what route did you take next - either a dusion or ankle replacement, which would you recommend? Any advice would be great Thanks you in advance

A. here is an article that might give you an idea:

http://www.aaos.org/news/aaosnow/may08/clinical6.asp

tell me if this is what you looked for.

Q. Past few months from now my mom is facing a severe pain in the joints of her ankle.not even able to walk now Hi All, Something happened like this my mom was attacked by sever cough and an x-ray was taken and Doctors confirmed that there was some infection in lugs and it got cured.Later she got fever and after few days wen fever went off she found it difficult to move bcz of swelling in her ankle and tightened joints,large pain when tried to walk and a bit of swellin in figures too.Am very much confused abt wat this disease is and y is this happened suddenly. Is der any disease vch can bring down the mobility in one week. Doctors at my place are completely ignorant abt such situation and are claiming this can not be cured and should be faced through out the life. I took my mom to a good city hospital and Doctors here have categorized it as Rheumatoid arithritis. Am really worried and completely ignorant abt this Kindly help me.

A. If it started after lung infection, than the joint pain may represent "reactive arthritis" after pneumonia due to Chlamydophila (a bacteria that cause inflammation of the joints after it cause lung infection).

You may try to read more about it here:
www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000440.htm
However, it's only a suggestion - you may want to consult someone more professional.

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