This rare injury corresponds to Salter and Harris type 4 and OTA type 33-B3 fractures (frontal, partial articular fracture
of the distal femur).
The fixator can be used as supplemental fixation, if minimal internal fixation is used for the articular fracture
fixation, or converted to a non-joint spanning frame for fracture stabilization.
Treatment of displaced articular fractures
of the radius.
Ring D, Jupiter JB, Gulotta L: Articular fractures
of the distal part of the humerus.
Altissimi M, Mancini GB, Ciaffoloni E, Pucci G: Comminuted articular fractures of the distal radius: Results of conservative treatment.
Fernandez DL, Geissler WB: Treatment of displaced articular fractures of the radius.
Duncan SF, Weiland AJ: Minimally invasive reduction and osteosynthesis of articular fractures
of the distal radius.
Plate osteosynthesis of these fractures can also lead to avascular necrosis with rates up to 35% in complex articular fractures
as reported by Gerber et al.
Distal fractures involving the metacarpal head are articular fractures by definition, and as such should receive urgent treatment.
Articular fractures of the thumb metacarpal base comprise an important subset of hand injuries.
Examples of these internal fixations and reconstructions include compression fractures, intra-articular and extra articular fractures
, displaced fractures, osteotomies, non-unions and mal-unions.
McQueen and Caspers (16) Patients who healed with a malunion Reviewed patients with extra- had worse grip strength, motion, articular fractures
treated and had more difficulties with nonoperatively activities of daily living.