arterial blood pressure


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Related to arterial blood pressure: systolic pressure, Mean Arterial Blood Pressure, venous blood pressure

pressure

 (P) [presh´ur]
force per unit area.
arterial pressure (arterial blood pressure) blood pressure (def. 2).
atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted by the atmosphere, usually considered as the downward pressure of air onto a unit of area of the earth's surface; the unit of pressure at sea level is one atmosphere. Pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
barometric pressure atmospheric p.
blood pressure
2. pressure of blood on walls of any blood vessel.
capillary pressure the blood pressure in the capillaries.
central venous pressure see central venous pressure.
cerebral perfusion pressure the mean arterial pressure minus the intracranial pressure; a measure of the adequacy of cerebral blood flow.
cerebrospinal pressure the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, normally 100 to 150 mm Hg.
continuous positive airway pressure see continuous positive airway pressure.
filling pressure see mean circulatory filling pressure.
high blood pressure hypertension.
intracranial pressure see intracranial pressure.
intraocular pressure the pressure exerted against the outer coats by the contents of the eyeball.
intrapleural pressure (intrathoracic pressure) pleural pressure.
intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure elevated positive end-expiratory pressure and dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation caused by insufficient expiratory time or a limitation on expiratory flow. It cannot be routinely measured by a ventilator's pressure monitoring system but is measurable only using an expiratory hold maneuver done by the clinician. Its presence increases the work needed to trigger the ventilator, causes errors in the calculation of pulmonary compliance, may cause hemodynamic compromise, and complicates interpretation of hemodynamic measurements. Called also auto-PEEP and intrinsic PEEP.
maximal expiratory pressure maximum expiratory pressure.
maximal inspiratory pressure the pressure during inhalation against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) a measure of the strength of respiratory muscles, obtained by having the patient exhale as strongly as possible against a mouthpiece; the maximum value is near total lung capacity.
maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) the inspiratory pressure generated against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
mean airway pressure the average pressure generated during the respiratory cycle.
mean circulatory filling pressure a measure of the average (arterial and venous) pressure necessary to cause filling of the circulation with blood; it varies with blood volume and is directly proportional to the rate of venous return and thus to cardiac output.
negative pressure pressure less than that of the atmosphere.
oncotic pressure the osmotic pressure of a colloid in solution.
osmotic pressure the pressure required to stop osmosis through a semipermeable membrane between a solution and pure solvent; it is proportional to the osmolality of the solution. Symbol π.
partial pressure the pressure exerted by each of the constituents of a mixture of gases.
peak pressure in mechanical ventilation, the highest pressure that occurs during inhalation.
plateau pressure in mechanical ventilation, the pressure measured at the proximal airway during an end-inspiratory pause; a reflection of alveolar pressure.
pleural pressure the pressure between the visceral pleura and the thoracic pleura in the pleural cavity. Called also intrapleural or intrathoracic pressure.
positive pressure pressure greater than that of the atmosphere.
positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) a method of control mode ventilation in which positive pressure is maintained during expiration to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange. A PEEP higher than the critical closing pressure prevents alveolar collapse and can markedly improve the arterial Po2 in patients with a lowered functional residual capacity, as in acute respiratory failure.
Effects of the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the alveoli. A, Atelectatic alveoli before PEEP application. B, Optimal PEEP application has reinflated alveoli to normal volume. C, Excessive PEEP application overdistends the alveoli and compresses adjacent pulmonary capillaries, creating dead space with its attendant hypercapnia. From Pierce, 1995.
pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)) intravascular pressure, reflecting the left ventricular end diastolic pressure, measured by a swan-ganz catheter wedged into a small pulmonary artery to block the flow from behind.
pulse pressure the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures. If the systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg, the pulse pressure is 40 mm Hg; the normal pulse pressure is between 30 and 40 mm Hg.
urethral pressure the pressure inwards exerted by the walls of the urethra, which must be counteracted in order for urine to flow through; see also urethral pressure profile.
venous pressure the blood pressure in the veins; see also central venous pressure.
water vapor pressure the tension exerted by water vapor molecules, 47 mm Hg at normal body temperature.
wedge pressure blood pressure measured by a small catheter wedged into a vessel, occluding it; see also pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and wedged hepatic vein pressure.
wedged hepatic vein pressure the venous pressure measured with a catheter wedged into the hepatic vein. The difference between wedged and free hepatic vein pressures is used to locate the site of obstruction in portal hypertension; it is elevated in that due to cirrhosis, but low in cardiac ascites or portal vein thrombosis.

arterial blood pressure (ABP)

the pressure of the blood in the arterial system, which depends on the heart's pumping pressure, the resistance of the arterial walls, elasticity of vessels, the blood volume, and its viscosity.

ar·te·ri·al blood pres·sure

(ahr-terē-ăl blŭd preshŭr)
Measurement of the force of the movement of blood against the vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

arterial

pertaining to an artery or to the arteries.

arterial anomaly
see arteriovenous fistula, portacaval shunt.
arterial baroreceptors
pressure-sensitive receptors in the blood vessels which initiate changes in blood volume; include low-pressure receptors in great veins and high-pressure receptors in carotid and aortic bodies.
arterial blood pressure
cerebral arterial circle
arterial circle created by the conjunction of the caudal communicating artery and the rostral cerebral artery. It encircles the optic chiasma and the hypophysis. Called also the circle of Willis.
cilial arterial circle
the circle of arteries in the ciliary muscle of the eye of birds.
arterial degeneration
includes arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis.
direct arterial blood pressure
direct measurement via a manometer inserted into the artery; procedure suited only to experimental procedures.
arterial embolism
arterial hypertrophy
hypertrophy of any or all layers of the arterial wall. Usually a response to an increased work load, e.g. in collateral arteries after occlusion of a main supply artery; may be associated with regional, e.g. pulmonary, hypertension.
indirect arterial blood pressure
see arterial blood pressure.
arterial inflammation
iridial arterial circle
the arterial circle at the periphery of the iris.
arterial mineralization
see mineralization, intimal bodies.
arterial pulse
see pulse.
arterial rupture
traumatic rupture is more common than spontaneous rupture; the latter occurs in uterine arteries of hypocuprotic old mares at parturition, in dogs infested with Spirocerca lupi, in internal or maxillary arteries ulcerated by fungal infection in horses causing fatal hemorrhage into the guttural pouch.
arterial thromboembolism
see embolism, thrombosis, verminous mesenteric arteritis, saddle thrombus.
arterial thrombosis
the presence of a thrombus in an artery. See also thrombosis.

blood pressure

the pressure of the blood in the blood vessels. The term usually refers to the pressure of the blood within the arteries, or arterial blood pressure. This pressure is determined by several interrelated factors, including the pumping action of the heart, the resistance to the flow of blood in the arterioles, the elasticity of the walls of the main arteries, the blood volume and extracellular fluid volume, and the blood's viscosity, or thickness.
Relatively simple Doppler instruments can provide accurate blood pressure measurements in dogs and cats. The systolic pressure in dogs is 132±22 mmHg; in cats it is 108±23 mmHg. Thoroughbreds have been shown to be 112/77 mmHg. Indwelling catheters can be used in dogs to monitor central venous pressure.

arterial blood pressure
the common measure of blood pressure. The measurement in animal patients must be by a method that does not require entrance to an artery, i.e. noninvasive. Standard methods use an inflatable cuff around a limb, around the tail in the horse, and measurement of the air pressure required to obliterate the pulse wave—the systolic blood pressure, and permit the re-entry of the pulse wave—the diastolic blood pressure.
blood pressure homeostasis
the maintenance of a steady state of blood pressure. The mechanisms involved include the baroreceptor mechanism, the chemoreceptor mechanism, the ischemic response of the central nervous system (the Cushing response), the renin-angiotensin vasoconstrictor and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the capillary fluid-shift mechanism, the regulation of body fluid level by the kidney and the stress-relaxation mechanism of the arterial wall.
blood pressure impedance
the resistance to pulsatile flow, as in arteries.
pulmonary wedge blood pressure
see wedge pressure.
blood pressure regulation
the complex regulatory system which controls arterial blood pressure is dependent on sensory inputs related to cardiac output, peripheral resistance to blood flow at the arterioles, the viscosity of the blood, the volume of blood in the arterial system, the elasticity of the arterial walls. Changes in blood pressure are brought about by the control exerted on the same physiological mechanisms.
venous blood pressure
see central venous pressure.

Patient discussion about arterial blood pressure

Q. Does Ameal BP lower high blood pressure?

A. The answer is, CURRENTLY, not. Milk proteins (the class that Ameal BP belongs to) do lower blood pressure in lab studies, but trials in humans have shown mixed results. You should remember that it may interfere with other drugs you may take, so first consult your doctor if it's safe for you.
You may try it and see if it works or not.

More discussions about arterial blood pressure
References in periodicals archive ?
Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that a large change of salt intake (1/10-10 times) in animals or human beings with normal renal function can change the arterial blood pressure no more than 10-20 mmHg.
The muscular left ventricle then immediately generates arterial blood pressure levels as the blood passes across the aortic valve.
Central arterial blood pressure is the pressure in the aorta, which
Folate also lowered arterial blood pressure independently of its ability to decrease homocysteine (J.
Effect of professional work and environmental factors on arterial blood pressure.
Results: The average of all of the ankle blood pressures was significantly higher for all systolic and mean arterial blood pressure readings.
Outcome measures included pain and anxiety, assessed using the Visual Analog Scale; medication use, measured in equivalent morphine doses; pulse rate; and mean arterial blood pressure, he said at the annual meeting of the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists.
In fact, no significant differences were seen in the control group patients in terms of presession and postsession pain and anxiety scores, or in pulse and mean arterial blood pressure, according to Dr.
daily for 7 days) on arterial blood pressure and renal sodium excretion in conscious rats.
In animal models of PAH, the drug candidate prevents the elevation of pulmonary arterial blood pressure and reduces arterial hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis.
0 times the MAC, there was significant dose-dependent decrease in the arterial blood pressure.
The journal talks about latest advances in the treatment and management of neurological disorders, including neurostimulation for headaches, 12 new anti-epileptic drugs for epilepsy patients, controlling arterial blood pressure in stroke patients, current and emerging therapies for motor complications of Parkinson's disease, therapeutic challenges in dystonia, treatment of low-grade cerebral gliomas (brain tumors), management of acute, recurrent and chronic meningitis in adults and treatment options for parasomnias (sleep walking, night terrors and other sleep disorders).