In fermented leaves, 31% of gallic acid was found followed with 28% ellagitannins, 18% gallic acid derivatives and 18% flavonoids, with the remaining caffeoyl quinic acid, bergenin and arbutin
(Salminen et al.
A Pera e excelente fonte de compostos fenolicos, tais como arbutin
, acido clorogenico, flavan-3-ois, procianidinas, alem de vitaminas (vitamina C, retinol, tiamina, riboflavina e niacina), sais minerais e acidos organicos, que apresentam, dentre outras, atividades antioxidante, adstringente e clareadora (BARRETO et al.
has announced its recent discovery that skin whitening power made with turmeric is four times as strong as that made with the conventional arbutin
Common ones are bearberry, mulberry, cranberry (this contains arbutin
I natureOs skin lightener), liquorice and kojic acid derived from malted rice.
is the naturally occurring non-toxic monoglucoside of HQ.
We have a light- blue bottle of Fitomarina (which claims to be a moisturising cleansing gel) and a tube of Helena Harnik Illuminating Skin Science System, which, as if you didn't already know, has been `developed around the amazing ingredient Arbutin
The Vivatia foam enables two percent hydroquinone to be combined with nine additional skin brightening ingredients, such as kojic acid, arbutin
, licorice root and niacinamide, for visible results in as little as four weeks.
DMEM medium, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), acrylamide/bis TEMED (tetramethylene diamine), 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)2, 5-diphenyl-tertazolium bromide (MTT), penicillin, streptomycin, tryspin-EDTA, [alpha]-melanocyte stimulating hormone ([alpha]-MSH), arbutin
, and anti-[beta]-actin were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co.
The active ingredients in Booty Call are kojic acid which is widely used in the food industry to maintain color and arbutin
an extract of bearberry.
L5 utilization of carbohydrate substrates Carbohydrate Utilization Glycerol - Erythritol - D-arabinose - L-arabinose - Ribose + D-xylose - L-xylose - Adonitol - [beta]-Methyl-D-xyloside - Galactose - D-glucose + D-fructose - D-mannose - L-sorbose - Rhamnose - Dulcitol - Inositol - Mannitol - Sorbitol - [alpha]-Methyl-D-Mannoside - [alpha]-Methyl-D-Glucoside - N acetyl glucosamin - Amygdalin - Arbutin
- Esculin + Salicin - Cellobiose - Maltose + Lactose - Melibiose + Saccharose + Trehalose - Inulin - Melezitose - D-raffinose + Amidon - Glycogen - Xylitol - [beta]-Gentiobiose - D-turanose - D-lyxose - D-tagatose - D-fucose - L-fucose - D-arabitol - L-Arabitol - Gluconate -(+) 2-keto-gluconate - 5-keto-gluconate - +: positive, -: negative.
The whitening effect is stronger than the one given by other whitening substances such as arbutin
Some plants readily detoxify HQ through glucosylation, yielding the monoglucoside arbutin