Moreover, uptake of hexoses by developing kernels from the apoplast
is also an active process involving H+/hexose co transport.
IAC Fantastico' suggests that it has physiological mechanisms of tolerance, such as: exclusion mechanisms, in which Al is prevented from reaching its toxicity sites in the plant by the formation of organo-mineral complexes or chelates with organic compounds of low molecular weight, exuded in the region of the rhizosphere or apoplast
by the plants; internal or repair mechanism, which allows the penetration of Al in the cell, but its phytotoxic action is neutralized by enzymes or even isolated inside the vacuole, where the complexation of the cations occurs (Van & Masuda, 2004).
1993), altering the binding and distribution of ions in the apoplast
(KINRAIDE, 1993), which directly influences the growth of the organ.
Effects of White, Blue, Red-Light and Darkness on Ph of the Apoplast
in the Samanea Pulvinus.
In vascular plants under water stress, ROS production has been detected in apoplast
, xylem vessels, chloroplasts and mitochondria (Mittler et al.
Polygalacturonase-mediated dissolution and depolymerization of pectins in solutions mimicking the pH and mineral composition of tomato fruit apoplast
Contribution of apoplast
andsymplast to short term Ni uptake by maize andLeptoplax emarginata roots.
The former is characterized by the distribution of hyphae throughout the cortex, extracellularly, spreading along the apoplast
, and the formation of arbuscules.
AA is also considered an important molecule against ozone due to its occurrence in the apoplast
, once this pollutant enters the plant predominantly through the stomata and reacts immediately with water intensifying the ROS formation.
A possible mechanism for detoxification of Al consists of: Al uptake through Al-F (fluoride) or Al-citrate complexes and storage in large intercellular spaces in the leaf apoplast
, together with Si (silicon) or Aloxalate complexes (Mengel & Kirkby 1982, Klumpp et al.
is considered the first line of defense against pollutants, where ozone can be detoxified before it reaches the leaf cell surface and causes the damage that interferes with photosynthesis and reduces yields.
The temporal correlation of changes in apoplast
pH and growth rate in maize coleoptile segments.