apophysitis

apophysitis

 [ah-pof″ĭ-si´tis]
inflammation of an apophysis.

a·poph·y·si·tis

(ă-pof'i-sī'tis),
Inflammation of any apophysis.

apophysitis

/apoph·y·si·tis/ (ah-pof″ĭ-si´tis) inflammation of an apophysis.

apophysitis

[əpof′əsī′tis]
an inflammation of an outgrowth, projection, or swelling, especially a bony outgrowth that is still attached to the rest of the bone. Apophysitis occurs due to excessive traction or stress most frequently affecting the calcaneus (Sever's disease), the knee (Osgood-Schlatter), the shoulder (Little Leaguer shoulder) or elbow (Little Leaguer elbow).

a·poph·y·si·tis

(ă-pof-i-sī'tis)
Inflammation of any apophysis.

apophysitis

inflammation of an apophysis, secondary to trauma-induced bone microfractures
  • traction apophysitis; TrA; distraction apophysitis traction injury, characteristically of immature bone (i.e. bone whose epiphyses have not undergone ossification), where muscle contraction force at the point of tendon insertion causes detachment of the centre of ossification from the parent bone; e.g. Sever's disease (TrA of calcaneum), Osgood-Schlatter's disease (TrA of tibial tuberosity) and Iselin's disease (TrA of base of the fifth metatarsal) (see Table 1 and Table 2)

Table 1: Classifications of osteochondritis in the lower limb
Criterion 11. OC of the primary articular epiphysis (e.g. Freiberg's disease of the metatarsal head; Kohler's disease of the navicular)
2. OC of the secondary articular epiphysis (e.g. osteochondritis dissecans of the talus)
3. OC of the non-articular epiphysis (e.g. Osgood-Schlatter disease of the tibial tuberosity; Iselin's disease of the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal)
Criterion 21. Crushing apophysitis (e.g. Freiberg's disease) where the pressure of the base of the adjacent phalanx causes an 'eggshell fracture' of the affected metatarsal head
2. Traction or distraction apophysitis (e.g. Sever's disease; Iselin's disease; Osgood-Schlatter disease) where traction at the tendon insertion distracts a secondary centre of ossification from the body of the calcaneum, fifth metatarsal or tibia respectively
3. Fragmentation apophysitis (e.g. osteochondritis dissecans) in which the cortical bone overlying the enchondral defect fractures and separates to create a loose body within the joint
Two criteria may be used to classify osteochondritis:
• criterion 1 relates to the anatomical location of the enchondral ossification defect
• criterion 2 relates to the effects on the diseased bone brought about by the local forces that act on the bone.
Table 2: Presentations of osteochondritis/osteochondrosis in the leg and foot
OCSite affectedTypeAge of onset (years)
Blount's diseaseProximal tibial epiphysisUnderdevelopment of medial epiphysis1-3; 6-13
Buschke's diseaseCuneiformsOssification anomaly11-15
Freiberg's diseaseSecond/third metatarsal headCrushing OC12-18
Iselin's diseaseBase of fifth metatarsalTraction apophysitis11-15
Kohler's diseaseNavicularCrushing OC3-7
Legg-Calve-Perthe diseaseCapital femoral epiphysisTrue OC2-16
Osgood-Schlatter diseaseTibial tuberosityTrauma-related11-15
Osteochondritis dissecansTalar dome
Lateral femoral condyle of knee
Osteonecrosis12-18
Sever's diseaseCalcaneal apophysisTraction apophysitis10-14
Sinding-Larson-Johansson diseasePatellaTraction apophysitis10-14
Treve's diseaseSesamoids (1 MTPJ)True OC15-20

1 MTPJ, first metatarsophalangeal joint.

apophysitis

inflammation of an apophysis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Aside from creating imbalances that could result in ankle sprains, continuous running in a cleated shoe can injure and inflame the growth plate in the heel, causing a painful condition called Calcaneal Apophysitis, which can be extremely slow to heal and, in extreme cases, may require surgical intervention.
Medial epicondyle apophysitis and avulsion injuries
Finally, pitching injuries related to medial tension overload, lateral compression and extension overload include injuries of the flexorpronator tendon and lateral collateral ligament complex, cubital tunnel syndrome, medial epicondyle apophysitis and avulsion injuries, sublime tubercle and olecranon stress fractures, posteromedial impingement, Panner disease and osteochondritis dissecans.
Heel pain in an active adolescent: Consider calcaneal apophysitis.
MRS D WATSON, IRVINE Sever's Disease, also known as calcaneal apophysitis, normally occurs in active children aged nine to 14 at the time of a growth spurt.
That condition is also known as calcaneal apophysitis or Sever's Disease.