22) Histologically, apical cap
represents a localized area of fibroelastosis that is directly subpleural, extending focally into lung parenchyma.
Braunsophila is the most similar to Xestomyza, but can be separated by the following characters: scape much thicker than pedicel in Xestomyza (same thickness in Braunsophila), pair of finger-like extensions on gonocoxite with strong apical setae and apical cap on aedeagus (both features absent in Braunsophila).
13); aedeagus with ventral apodeme long and forked, dorsal apodeme reduced and apical cap extended and wing-like (Figs 16, 17).
36,37,40) In idiopathic cases, the apical cap
is a common incidental radiologic finding, reported as unilateral in 11.