apelin


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apelin

A peptide encoded by APLN on chromosome Xq25, which is a ligand for the G-coupled APJ receptor, and is expressed on a wide range of tissues including heart, lung, kidney, liver, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, adrenal glands, and vascular endothelium.
Activities
• Angiogenesis Activates cell transduction cascade, leading to endothelial cell proliferation and formation of new blood vessels.
• Vasodilation Activates endothelial receptors which release NO, a vasodilator.
• Cardiogenesis Regulates embryonic cell migration leading to the formation of cardiomyocytes.
• Cardiovascular control Stimulates cardiac contractility, cardiac remodelling.
• Homeostasis Regulates hypothalamic messaging for pituitary hormone release, food and water intake.
• Gastrointestinal Inhibits histamine release by enterochromaffin-like cells, reducing acid secretion by parietal cells.
• Endocrine Regulates serum glucose via a relationship with insulin.
References in periodicals archive ?
These are AB-002, APT-102, Drugs to Inhibit Alpha Myosin for Cardiovascular Disorders, LA-8045, LWnt-3a, Lysimab, NVX-308, Peptide to Agonize Apelin Receptor for Diabetes and Heart Failure, Small Molecule for Reperfusion Injury and Heart Attack and Small Molecules to Inhibit PDE5 for Cardiovascular Disease.
MS-based approaches to unravel the molecular complexity of proprotein-derived biomarkers and support their quantification: the examples of B-type natriuretic peptide and apelin peptides.
The team also found that ELABELA uses a receptor previously believed to be specific to APELIN, a blood-pressure controlling hormone.
This receptor called APJ or Apelin Receptor has dual functions - it first conveys signals from ELABELA and then from APELIN.
The research findings described in this media release can be found in the 5 December 2013 online issue of Cell Press under the title, "ELABELA: A Hormone Essential for Heart Development Signals via the Apelin Receptor" by Serene C.
Apelin is a new investigated member of adipose tissue peptide (6) and apelin expression has been shown in different tissues and in the uterus (7-9).
Other adipose tissue-derived peptides such as leptin (6), apelin (7) and visfatin (8) were also reported to have some effects on the atheroclerotic diseases.
Changes and relations of circulating visfatin, apelin, and resistin levels in normal, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetic subjects.
Apelin, orexin-A, and leptin levels in the plasma appear to work together to influence satiety, reported M.
A separate study, carried out by researchers in the Peoples' Republic of China, found that apelin, a newly described inotropic peptide, improves heart function following transplantation of BMMCs.