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apelinA peptide encoded by APLN on chromosome Xq25, which is a ligand for the G-coupled APJ receptor, and is expressed on a wide range of tissues including heart, lung, kidney, liver, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, adrenal glands, and vascular endothelium.
• Angiogenesis Activates cell transduction cascade, leading to endothelial cell proliferation and formation of new blood vessels.
• Vasodilation Activates endothelial receptors which release NO, a vasodilator.
• Cardiogenesis Regulates embryonic cell migration leading to the formation of cardiomyocytes.
• Cardiovascular control Stimulates cardiac contractility, cardiac remodelling.
• Homeostasis Regulates hypothalamic messaging for pituitary hormone release, food and water intake.
• Gastrointestinal Inhibits histamine release by enterochromaffin-like cells, reducing acid secretion by parietal cells.
• Endocrine Regulates serum glucose via a relationship with insulin.