aortic stenosis


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Related to aortic stenosis: aortic regurgitation, Supravalvular aortic stenosis

stenosis

 [stĕ-no´sis] (pl. steno´ses)
an abnormal narrowing or contraction of a body passage or opening; called also arctation, coarctation, and stricture.
aortic stenosis obstruction to the outflow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta; in the majority of adult cases the etiology is degenerative calcific disease of the valve.
hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis) a cardiomyopathy of unknown cause, in which the left ventricle is hypertrophied and the cavity is small; it is marked by obstruction to left ventricular outflow.
mitral stenosis a narrowing of the left atrioventricular orifice (mitral valve) due to inflammation and scarring; the cause is almost always rheumatic heart disease. Normally the leaflets open with each pulsation of the heart, allowing blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle, and close as the ventricle fills again so that they prevent a backward flow of blood. In mitral stenosis there is a resultant increase of pressure in the pulmonary artery and hypertrophy of the left ventricle. The usual treatment is surgical replacement of the valve.
pulmonary stenosis (PS) narrowing of the opening between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle.
pyloric stenosis see pyloric stenosis.
renal artery stenosis narrowing of one or both renal arteries by atherosclerosis or by fibrous dysplasia or hyperplasia, so that renal function is impaired (see ischemic nephropathy). Increased renin release by the affected kidney causes renovascular hypertension, and bilateral stenosis may result in chronic renal failure.
spinal stenosis narrowing of the vertebral canal, nerve root canals, or intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine, caused by encroachment of bone upon the space; symptoms are caused by compression of the cauda equina and include pain, paresthesias, and neurogenic claudication. The condition may be either congenital or due to spinal degeneration.
subaortic stenosis aortic stenosis due to an obstructive lesion in the left ventricle below the aortic valve, causing a pressure gradient across the obstruction within the ventricle. See also idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis.
subglottic stenosis stenosis of the trachea below the glottis. A congenital form results in neonatal stridor or laryngotracheitis, often requiring tracheotomy but resolving with age. An acquired form is caused by repeated intubations.
tracheal stenosis scarring of the trachea with narrowing, usually as a result of injury from an artificial airway or trauma.
tricuspid stenosis (TS) narrowing or stricture of the tricuspid orifice of the heart, a condition often seen in patients with severe congestive heart failure, usually the result of volume overload and pulmonary hypertension with right ventricular and tricuspid annular dilation.

a·or·tic ste·no·sis

pathologic narrowing of the aortic valve orifice.

aortic stenosis (AS)

Etymology: Gk, aeirein + stenos, narrow, osis, condition
a narrowing or stricture of the aortic valve. Common causes include calcification of the valve because of age, congenital malformations such as bicuspid or unicuspid valves, or direct damage to the valve from rheumatic fever, which leads to fusion of the cusps. Aortic stenosis obstructs the flow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta, causing decreased cardiac output and pulmonary vascular congestion. It may lead to congestive heart failure. Clinical manifestations include faint peripheral pulses, exercise intolerance, angina-type pain, syncope, and a harsh midsystolic murmur often introduced by an ejection sound. Diagnosis is confirmed by cardiac catheterization or echocardiography. Surgical repair may be indicated. Surgery is followed by frequent examinations because prosthetic valve dysfunction and bacterial endocarditis are relatively common sequelae. Children with aortic stenosis are usually restricted from strenuous activities. See also congenital cardiac anomaly, valvular heart disease.
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Aortic stenosis

aortic stenosis

A condition characterised by narrowing of the aortic annulus due to degeneration and calcification of the valve leaflets; AS is more common and occurs earlier in patients with underlying valve defects (e.g., bicuspid valves). Aortic stenosis in previously normal valves develops after age 60 and is associated with HTN and hypercholesterolaemia.

Aetiology
Rheumatic fever, congenital heart disease, idiopathic sclerosis.
 
Physical examination
Systolic ejection murmur radiating to the neck. In mild stenosis, the murmur peaks early in systole and is often associated with a thrill; with increased severity, the murmur peaks progressively later in systole and may become softer as cardiac output decreases.

Clinical findings
Angina, syncope, congestive heart failure (CHF).
 
Haemodynamics
Chronic stenosis leads to LV enlargement and CHF. Pressure gradient is related to valve area 6mm Hg at 2cm2 and 26 mm Hg at 1cm2, but 105 mm Hg at 0.5 cm2.

Diagnosis
Doppler echocardiography indicates increased flow rates and decreased total flow; catheterisation; coronary angiography.
 
Management
If asymptomatic, none needed except for prophylactic antibiotics to cover for infective endocarditis; valve replacement surgery; balloon valvotomy is only palliative.

aortic stenosis

Cardiology Narrowing of the aortic annulus caused by degeneration and calcification of the valve leaflets; AS is more common and occurs earlier in Pts with underlying valve defects–eg, bicuspid valves; AS in previously normal valves develops after age 60 and is associated with HTN and hypercholesterolemia Etiology Rheumatic fever, congenital heart disease, idiopathic sclerosis Clinical Angina, syncope, CHF Hemodynamics Chronic stenosis leads to LV enlargement, CHF Examination Systolic ejection murmur radiating to the neck; in mild stenosis, the murmur peaks early in systole and is often associated with a thrill; with ↑ severity the murmur peaks progressively later in systole, and may become softer as cardiac output ↓ Diagnosis Doppler echocardiography indicates ↑ flow rates and ↓ total flow; catheterization, coronary angiography Management If asymptomatic, none needed except for prophylactic antibiotics to cover for infective endocarditis; valve replacement surgery; balloon valvotomy is only palliative. Cf Aortic regurgitation, Pulmonary stenosis.

a·or·tic sten·o·sis

(ā-ōr'tik stĕ-nō'sis)
Pathologic narrowing of the aortic valve orifice, blocking blood flow from the left ventricle, thus decreasing cardiac output.

aortic stenosis

Narrowing of the aortic valve of the heart.

Aortic stenosis

A stiffening of the artery which carries blood from the heart to the body.

stenosis

narrowing or contraction of a body passage or opening. See also specific anatomical sites.

aortic stenosis
obstruction to the outflow of blood from the left ventricle into the aorta. May be due to an anomaly of the valves (valvular), an obstruction in the ascending aorta (supravalvular), or an obstruction in the left ventricular outflow tract (subvalvular). See also aortic subvalvular stenosis, aortic valvular disease.
esophageal stenosis
a common cause of esophageal obstruction, caused commonly by esophageal trauma; congenital stenosis often associated with tracheoesophageal fistula.
left atrioventricular stenosis
see mitral stenosis (below), valvular stenosis.
mesonephric duct stenosis
occurs as stenosis of the ductus deferens or epididymis; may be associated with renal aplasia.
mitral stenosis
a narrowing of the left atrioventricular orifice. See also mitral commissurotomy.
nasopharyngeal stenosis
an acquired disorder in cats, usually following chronic upper respiratory infection, which causes upper airway obstruction with mucopurulent nasal discharge and a wheezing respiration, which is relieved with open mouth breathing.
paramesonephric duct stenosis
focal defects in the duct lead to segmental aplasia or stenosis of the uterine tube or horn.
pulmonary artery stenosis
the commonest cardiac defect in dogs; it is a narrowing of the pulmonary outflow tract and may occur in any one of a number of common sites including infundibular, valvular and subvalvular.
rectovaginal stenosis
see rectovaginal constriction.
right atrioventricular stenosis
see tricuspid stenosis (below).
subepiglottic stenosis
has the effect of reducing air flow into and out of the lungs.
tricuspid stenosis
narrowing or stricture of the tricuspid orifice of the heart.
valvular stenosis

Patient discussion about aortic stenosis

Q. How does alcohol affect someone who has been diagnosed with aortic valve stenosis? My brother has been diagnosed with aortic valve stenosis and also is a smoker and does drink alcohol on the weekends. He knows that he should stop smoking but what about the effects of alcohol? Does this also contribute to his stenosis?

A. Alcohol changes blood pressure and speed of the heart- that is not a good idea if you have an Aortic stenosis. Could probably makes things worst. I would avoid alcohol… but he should ask GP.

Q. Why does Aortic stenosis causes an enlarged heart? My father was recently diagnosed as suffering from enlarged heart due to his Aortic stenosis. what is the connection between those to conditions? As far as I understand that aortic stenosis mean that the aortic valve is too small not too large...

A. there are several explanations for the enlargement of the heart that occurs due to Aortic stenosis. the most reasonable is that the mechanical power that the heart uses makes it bigger. it easy to see it here: http://www.marvistavet.com/assets/images/aortic_stenosis.gif
this is called Left Ventricular Hypertrophy or LVH in abbreviations.
this is a classic LVH E.C.G.
http://www.frca.co.uk/images_main/resources/ECG/ECGresource39.jpg

More discussions about aortic stenosis
References in periodicals archive ?
Key clinical point: Pregnancy in women with aortic stenosis now carries a near-zero risk of maternal mortality.
While 2-9% of people over age 65 are diagnosed with aortic stenosis, (12) 48% of those over age 85 have aortic sclerosis, which is the calcification and thickening of the valve without left ventricular constriction.
Increased plasma natriuretic peptide levels reflect symptom onset in aortic stenosis.
She was diagnosed with aortic stenosis, in which the aortic valve in the heart narrows, hindering blood flow.
The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the American College of Cardiology have been working with the FDA and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to facilitate the creation of a national TVT registry that will serve as a platform for continued evaluation of postmarket experience with this and future transcatheter devices and procedures for the treatment of aortic stenosis.
An interesting study published in 2008 measured the amount of under-carboxylated MGP in the blood of healthy individuals and compared it to those with severe vascular diseases including aortic stenosis.
Clinical Trial, which will evaluate a new, non-surgical alternative to open-heart surgery for patients with severe aortic stenosis.
But a spokesperson said: "In line with other specialised commissioning groups in England, the North West Specialised Commissioning Group has approved the routine commissioning of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) for the treatment of aortic stenosis.
We disagree with Cowie's emphasis on quantitation of aortic stenosis in his focussed limited perioperative examination.
She is suffering from aortic stenosis, a narrowing of the main heart valve, which will be replaced by an artificial valve.
In the randomized, placebo-controlled SEAS (Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) study the therapy did not reduce major cardiovascular events and was linked to increased cancer deaths among asymptomatic patients with aortic stenosis (N.