Yet of course these landscapes, and the animals who inhabited them, had a growing number of defenders and guardians; thus, the rhetorical expansion of the physiologist's dominion outside of the laboratory came into conflict with the evolving principles of environmental advocacy as well as the antivivisection movement.
In his antivivisection writing Carroll suggests connections between the oppressive anthropocentrism at work in the laboratory and in the field, and in The Hunting of the Snark he makes nonsense of the natural historian's rational ordering of the nonhuman world.
Echoing the apocalyptic rhetoric of his earlier antivivisection piece, Carroll goes on to invoke "the possible advent of a day when anatomy shall claim as legitimate subjects for experiment, first, our condemned criminals--next, perhaps, the inmates of our refuges for incurables--then the hopeless lunatic, the pauper hospital-patient, and generally 'him that hath no helper'" (p.
Though Carroll clearly expresses a similar sense of identification at certain moments in his own antivivisection writing, his method in the Snark is instead to expose the similarities between aggressive and acquisitive humans and the animals to which they hold themselves falsely superior.
As in Carroll's antivivisection writing, human and nonhuman roles are dramatically reversed, and the object of the hunt comes to resemble the Banker, the Barrister, and the other ambitious humans who pursue it.
In the rhetoric of scientific boosterism satirized in Carroll's antivivisection writings, the laboratory was represented as a space that could contain the unruly world of nature within its controlled atmosphere.
6) Susan Hamilton has compiled a broad selection of vivisection-related literature in her invaluable three-volume anthology Animal Welfare and Antivivisection 1870-1910: Nineteenth Century Woman's Mission (New York: Routledge, 2004).