antipodal cells

antipodal cells

the three haploid cells that remain at the non-micropylar end of the EMBRYO SAC subsequent to division of the cells. After the formation of the egg cell they play little or no further part in seed development.
References in periodicals archive ?
3H), whereas the three antipodal cells at the chalazal end were ephemeral and degenerated soon after fertilization.
The female gametophyte corresponds to the embryo sac and covers an egg cell, a central cell, two synergid cells, and several antipodal cells.
Antipodal cells at the chalazal end of the sac usually divided again producing a cluster of antipodals.
Three antipodal cells were located at the chalazal pole and generally degenerated soon (Fig.
At time of fertilization, the megagametophyte consists of antipodal cells at the placental side and two partly fused polar nuclei and egg apparatus at the micropylar end.
In Arabidopsis the antipodal cells underwent cell death before fertilization (Yadegari and Drews, 2004).
The mature embryo sac is composed of 7 cells, one central cell contained polar nuclei or secondary nucleus, two synergids and one egg cell that formed egg apparatus and three antipodal cells that are degenerate in the mature embryo sac before fertilization.
Based on present embryological studies, many exceptional events were reported in the members of this family, including Nemec phenomenon (Davis, 1968; Batygina, 1987), increasing of synergids (Cichan and Palser, 1982), increasing of antipodal cells (Richards, 1997; Pandey, 2001), four-celled female gametophyte (Harling, 1951) and apomixis (Davis, 1968; Chaudhury et al.
Antipodal cells are degenerated in the studied flowers (Fig.