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a chemical substance derived from a microorganism or a synthetic analog of the substance, used in cancer chemotherapy. Dactinomycin, used in the treatment of Wilms' tumor, testicular carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and some other sarcomas, exerts its antineoplastic effect by interfering with ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis. Plicamycin, with a similar mechanism of action, is also administered for testicular cancer and for trophoblastic cancer. DOXOrubicin HCl, a broad-spectrum agent that is especially useful in treating breast carcinoma, lymphomas, sarcomas, and acute leukemia, and closely related daunomycin, which is also effective in acute leukemias, block the biosynthesis of RNA. Mitomycin C, prescribed for gastric, breast, cervical, and head and neck carcinomas, cross-links strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Bleomycin sulfate, used in the treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, testicular carcinoma, and lymphomas, damages DNA and prevents its repair. Antineoplastic antibiotics cause bone marrow depression and usually cause nausea and vomiting; several cause alopecia.
anti-cancer antibioticAny of a group of anticancer drugs (daunorubicin, doxorubicin, bleomycin, dactinomycin) which block cell growth by DNA intercalation, blocking synthesis of DNA and RNA.
antineoplastic antibioticAnticancer antibiotic, antitumor antibiotic Oncology Any of a group of anticancer drugs that block cell growth by interfering with DNA. See Daunomycin, Vinblastin, Vincristin.
an·ti·ne·o·plas·tic an·ti·bi·ot·ic(an'tē-nē'ō-plas'tik an'tē-bī-ot'ik)
An antibiotic that inhibits the growth and spread of neoplasms or malignant cells.
1. destructive of life.
2. a chemical substance produced by a microorganism that has the capacity, in dilute solutions, to kill (biocidal activity) or inhibit the growth (biostatic activity) of other microorganisms. Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. See also antimicrobial.
3. used as feed additives to animals as growth promotants.
a group of antibiotics which have a tetracycline ring structure substituted with the sugar daunosamine. Includes the antineoplastic drugs doxorubicin and daunorubicin.
one that kills bacteria.
one that suppresses the growth of bacteria.
one that is effective against a wide range of bacteria.
on-farm and prepackaged laboratory tests available for testing farm products and animal tissues and fluids for antibiotic residues.
antibiotic feed additives
see feed additives.
first generation antibiotic
one produced as a natural product, e.g. penicillin G. See second generation antibiotic (below).
antibiotic food preservation
is a satisfactory technique but very strictly controlled because of the problem of residues in the food. Used mostly for the preservation of fish.
see pseudomembranous colitis, acute undifferentiated diarrhea of the horse.
antibiotic residue in food
in human food of animal origin is a seriously regarded pollution in public health surveillance. The residues may arise from systemic administration, or even after absorption from a local site such as the uterus, but the most serious contamination arises from milk from quarters that have been treated for mastitis. It is essential for the safety of the human population, the financial well-being of the farmer and the professional reputation of the veterinarian that antibacterial withdrawal times are observed.
see antimicrobial resistance.
second generation antibiotic
produced by manipulation of the molecular structure of a first generation antibiotic (see above) so that the metabolism and pharmacodynamics of the original compound are significantly altered.
antibiotic sensitivity test
see antimicrobial sensitivity test.
antibiotics vary in their absorption from the alimentary tract, requiring some, e.g. streptomycin, to be given parenterally for systemic effect, freedom from toxicity, the range of bacteria against which they are effective, their capacity to stimulate resistance and whether they are bacteriostatic or bactericidal in their effects. Selection of the most suitable antibiotic to suit a particular circumstance may be guided by an antimicrobial sensitivity test, knowledge of the infection present and the price of the drug. In many instances, because of lack of knowledge of the infection present it is necessary to choose an agent with a broad antibacterial spectrum.
antibiotic withdrawal, antibiotic withholding
see antibacterial withdrawal time.